Comparative study of the Compassion sutra (Mahayana Maha karuna Dharani sutra) with Early Buddhism

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Comparative study of the Compassion sutra (Mahayana Maha karuna Dharani sutra) with Early Buddhism
(Specially, Sanskrit & Korean text)


Sutra Introduction

The Sakyamuni Buddha was at Potalaka Mountain. At that time, the Tathagata, who was sitting on his throne, intending to explain a teaching of the Total Retention Dharani, was along with innumerable Bodhisattva –Mahasattvas. That time Great compassionate Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva arose from his seat, tidied up his clothes, joined his palms towards the Buddha and said:

“Bhagavan, I have a mantra of Great –compassionate Heart Dharani and now wish to proclaim it, for comforting and pleasing all living beings; for healing all illness; for living beings to attain additional lifespan; for living beings to gain wealth; for extinguishing all evil karma and weighty sins; for keeping away from hindrance and disasters; for producing merits of all pure Dharmas; for maturing all virtuous roots; for overcoming all fears; for fulfilling all good wished. Bhagavan, please be merciful and allow me to speak ”

The Buddha said: “Virtuous man, you have great kindness and great compassion, in order to comfort and please all living beings, you wish to speak the holy mantra, it is the proper time now, please speak it soon, the Tathagata approves and rejoices it, and so do all Buddhas.” [1] Then Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva explains about this Dharani sutra and it benefits.

Meaning of Dharani

The Maha Karuna Dharani sutra has a various title. for example,

  • Maha Karuna Dharani sutra
  • Maha karunikacitta Dharani sutra
  • Nīlakantha Dharani sutra
  • Great compassionate Heart Dharani sutra
  • Sinmyojangudedharani sutra (Korean)

In this, all sutra title has a common word, It is “Dharani”. first I’m going to discuss word meaning of “Dharani”.

The term literally means “retention or memory”. This word Sanskrit root is √dhṛ ( धर ) – “ to hold, keep, possess, bear”[2]. Several of its derivatives have to mean associated with memory. for example, in Sanskrit;

“śrutvā codgrahiṣyati dhārayiṣyati vācayiṣyati… etc.,” (keep in mind, retain in memory…etc.)[3].

Word of Dharani is not found in Pāli, but use for it dhāraṇa and Sati. It’s also meaning “memory”. In Pāli grammar books represent it,

“√dhṛa - dhāraṇe,dharaṇaṃ vijjamānata dharati. Dharate satthusāsanaṃ”
(Dhāthu mālā)
“√dhṛa - dhāraṇe,suwaṇṇaṃ te dhārayaate,iṇaṃ dhārayati, assa rañña nāgaṃ dhārayāma”
(Payogasiddhi)

In the Korean language also meaning of Dharani is “memory”. for examples;

다라(dhara) –able to lay hold of the good so that it cannot be lost…… etc.
다라니 (dharani) – meaning to hold
문다라니 (mun dharani) – to hear and keep, hear and remember the teaching. [4]

The following quotations may serve to elucidate the concepts. In the Akṣayamatinirdeśa sutra[5] describe concepts of Dharaṇi. “tatra katamā dāraṇayskṣyatā?......

what then is the imperishability of memory?

Dharaṇī is to keep [the letters (vyañjana)], retain [the meaning (artha)] in mind and never again to forget [the letters (vyañjana)], to truly retain [the meaning (artha)] the eighty-four thousand multitudes of religion (dhamma), by means of remembrance derived from the earlier piling up roots of good, this is Dharani.

Further, memory is that by which one retains the words [the words and meaning (arthaśhabdha)] of all the buddhas, that by which one retains the saying of all the Bodhisattvas, Pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas and all living beings, that by which one retains all good saying without remainder. This is called memory.

Even when he leaves for another world –age or another birth, the knowledge which consists in the recollection of memory of that Bodhisattva is not lost or forgotten (it is pure remembrance). this is called imperishable memory. …. iyaṃ ucyate dharaṇi”

For another example, the two concepts appear together in Buddhism. it is Dharaṇi and Patibhāna. Patibhāna is mentioned among the four types of knowledge related to the exposition of religion, Dharma, Artha, Nirukti and Pratibhāna. When the two concepts appear together, Dharaṇi usually precedes Pratibhāna as a prerequisite, as one is not a good speaker when not able to memorize. According to the Lalitavistara [6],

“attaining dharaṇi is an entrance into the light of Dharma, as it functions so as to retain all that the buddhas spoke; attaining Pratibhāna is an entrance into the light of Dharma, as it functions so as to please all living beings with good sayings.”

The Bodhisattvabhūmi [7] divides dharaṇi into four types, “tatra katamā bhodhisattvānaṃ dharaṇī. Samāsataś caturvidha draṣṭavya.dharma dharaṇi,artha dharaṇi, mantra dharaṇi, bodhisattva kśaṃti labhāya ca dharaṅi.”


01. Dharma dharaṇi – this type the Bodhisattva acquires the power of remembrance (smṛti) and insight (prajñā) into the Dharma, and thus is able to retain in memory for endless time any book merely by hearing it once.
02. Artha dharaṇi – this type only here one retains the meaning of the book, not just words, as in the first.
03. Mantra dharaṇi – at first seems to justify the translation “magical formula”. Here, the bodhisattva acquires the power of concentration, and he employs the Mantras magically to alleviate the sufferings of living beings. A translation “retain, recollect, have a magical formula in mind”. The formula “iṭi miṭi kiṭi bhikṣānti padāni svāhā” quoted in the Bodhisattvabhūmi, is also called Mantrpada, and is mentioned as an example in the treatment of the fourth bodhisattva kśaṃti labhāya dharaṅi.
04. Bodhisattva kśaṃti labhāya dharaṅi – this dharaṇi consists in pondering a mantra until one understands its meaning, namely, that is without meaning (ayam eva caiṣam artho yad uta nirarthā), * and accordingly, understand all dharma as being beyond expression. The bodhisattva’s kṣanti is the tolerance of this state of things, that dharmas are unborn, empty and so on. (*in the Bodhisattvabhumi the syllables of the mantra are said to be without meaning, but in the Karuṇāpuṇḍarīka[8] calls the mahārthika, “having great meaning”)

However, all this should point to the translation “memory”. But as is well known, Mahāyana literature contains volume after volume of seemingly meaningless strings of syllables, associated with dharaṇi, to be recited for magical purposes. For examples in the third and fourth dharaṇi of the Bodhisattvabhūmi, whose words have no meaning. Another example in Korean Buddhist dictionary give a definition for Dharaṇi like that,

다라니(dharaṇi) – a mystic verse, true words, incantation
“다라니는 그 뜻이 심오하여 쉽게 번역할 수 없는 말로서. 지혜와 삼매를 성취시켜 주는 힘을 지니고 있는 비밀스런 진실어. 밀교에서는 다라니의 글자 하나 하나마다 무한한 의의와 위력을 가지고 있다고 믿는다. “ [9]

(Word of Darani that cannot be easily translated because of its deep meaning. A secret truth that has the power to fulfill wisdom and bounty. In Esoteric Buddhism, believe that Dharani letters have infinite significance and power.)

Then it represents synonyms for Dharani. Those all words meaning similar to Mantra or Magical word. For example, Similar words are Dharaṇi;

진언 (Jinon) –The word of Tathāgata, the term is used for mantra and Dharaṇi, indicating magical formulae, spells, esoteric words.
주 (Ju) – mantra, mystical or Magical, in wider sense dharaṇi, is a treatise with mystical meaning or explaining.

This has led Buddhists more often than not to translate dharaṇi as only “magical formula”. This does not fit well with the obvious connotation of memory.

If we comparing dharaṇi with the early Buddhism, the word of dharaṇi did not appear in the Pāli canon. But dharaṇi is also in the closely connected with concentration (Samādhi ) and remembrance (Sati). we can see this important two words (samādhi & sati) in the Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli-ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, Sanskrit: āryaṣṭāṅgamārga) . It is one of the principal teachings of The Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of Suffering (Dukkha) and the achievement of self-awakening.It is used to develop insight into the true nature reality and to eradicate greed, hatred, and delusion. This eight noble path explanation in Pāli lot of sutras; the Sacca Vibhaṃga Sutta, the Mahā Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta, Mahā Cattārisaka Sutta, Sammā Diṭṭhi Sutta, Culla Vedalla Sutta etc.

The Cūḷa Vedalla Sutta [10] show how the eight factors can be incorporated into the three “aggregates” of training (sikkhā): right speech, right action and right livelihood comprising the aggregate of moral virtue (sīla-k’khandha), right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration comprising the aggregate of mental concentration (samādhi-k’khandha), and right view and right intention comprising the aggregate of wisdom (paññā-k’khandha). The traditional threefold division of the noble eightfold path into sīla, samādhi, and paññā is as follows:


Factor

Aṇga

Training (sikkha)

Khandha

Right view

sammā diṭṭhi

Wisdom

aggregate

Paññā khandha

Right thought

sammā saṃkappa

Right speech

sammā vācā

Right action

sammā kammanta

Morality

aggregate

Sīla khandha

Right livelihood

sammā ājīva

Right effort

sammā vāyāma

Right mindfulness

sammā sati

Concentration

aggregate

Samādhi khandha

Right concentration

sammā samādhi

In the Mahā Cattārisaka Sutta explain about Samādhi (right concentration), “What, bhikkhus, is noble right concentration with its supports and its requisites, that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness? Unification of mind equipped with these seven factors is called noble right concentration with its supports and its requisites. [11] (Katamo ca bhikkhave, ariyo sammāsamādhi saupaniso saparikkhāro? Seyyathidaṃ – sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammāājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati; yā kho, bhikkhave, imehi sattahaṅgehi cittassa ekaggatā parikkhatā – ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, ariyo sammāsamādhi )

Therefore we can understand right concentration is dependent on the development with other seven factors. Same as in Mahākaruṇa Dharani sutra (full text) represent, The Avalokiteśvara bodhisattva said “Who wish to recite and hold this mantra (dharaṇi), they should first arouse great merciful and compassionate hearts for all living beings, and follow me in making these vows: Namo great compassionate Avalokiteśvara,


Path of wisdom (Sīla, Samādhi, paññā):

May I Quickly know all Dharmas
May I soon obtain the wisdom eye
May I Quickly Ferry all living beings
May I soon obtain virtuous skillful means
May I Quickly board the Prajña Boat
May I soon transcend the ocean of suffering
May I Quickly achieve precepts, samādhi, and the way
May I soon ascend the mountain of nirvana etc.
May I Quickly dwell in the house of non-action
May I soon unite with the Dharma – Nature Body.

That text also represents another way of Nibbana. If we deeply study this fact one by one it also talks about Sīla, Samādhi,paññā, there for dharaṇi may safely be translated as “the power of retaining in memory”, or simply “memory”. though the memory of extraordinary power. Dharaṇi was conceived as a seal, Mudrā, impressed upon the mind. [12]. So Dharaṇi and Samādhi naturally belong together; to retain something in memory, concentration is needed, and remembrance may produce concentration. Therefore, we can say Dharaṇi also same for samādhi (Concentration aggregate), dharṇi is another name for samādhi k’khandha and it also one of the higher step of the noble path (way of Nibbana).

There for we should need to go this way for attaining to salvation or freedom (Nibbana), But that is not easy. The lay masses think about if someone cannot succeed this all steps how about our next birth? So satisfy for this second class of laity, the Buddha had to incorporate some sort of Parittas or Dharaṇi .[13] In early Buddhism “Paritta” means protection (against danger), so Dharaṇi is the same word as for Paritta.Its means, another way Dharani also chanting for protection.

Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva

In Buddhist literature have to three kinds of Sanskrit name for Avalokiteśvara bodhisattva.

I. Avalokita
I. Avalokite-śvara
II. Avalokita –svara

Avalokita

The first name of Avalokita occurs in Śāntadevās Bodhicryāvatāra.[14] “taṁcāvalokitaṁ nāthaṃ” and in Prajñākaramat’s commentary [15] “sā bhagavān avalokitaḥ”, the Anekārtha saṅgrha of Hemachandra says “Avalokitas tu Buddhe apy avalokitam ikśite”.[16]

Avalokiteśvara

This name occurs in the Sanskrit version of the Sukāvatīvyūha[17] the first time. That book was translated into Chinese by Saṅghavarman in the A.D.252. He was translated Avalokiteśvara as Kuan-shih-sin.[18] The name Avalokiteśvara influenced by “Īśvara = śiva”, which shows the interaction of Śaivism and the worship of Avalokiteśvara. This name had crystallized by the time when Hsün-tsang (Hyun Tsang) completed his travels. In the third chapter of his travels, Hsün-tsang opines that Kuan-tzŭ-tsai = Avalokiteśvara is the correct name and recorded the existence of a temple dedicated to Avalokitesvara in south Indian hill Potala. The Potalaka mountain is Avalokitesvara bodhisattva's palace(Potalagirinivāsini), Present time also in south India Pothigai hills using for Tamil Hindu tradition worship for Lord Śiva and Murugan taught Agastya the Tamil language. Tamil Buddhist tradition developed in Chola literature, such as in Buddamitra’s Virasoliyam, states Agastya learned Tamil from the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. With the spread of Buddhism in the region beginning at the time of the great king Aśoka in the third century B.C.E., it became a holy place also for Buddhists.[19]

Avalokita-svara

Avalokita-svara occurs five-time on one incomplete leaf of an ancient Sanskrit manuscript of the fifth century written in Indian characters which have been found in Eastern Turkestan.[20] In the Saddharmapundarika sutra[21] 24th chapter, brought back by count K.Otani’s expedition which admits that sutras were written North of Himalayas has “svara” meaning “sound”. It was instead of “śvara”. Chin ch’ien,in his translation[22] the Vimalakīrti-nindeśa did in the years A.D 223-228 translates “Avalokita-svara”.Kumārajīva translated the same sutra 178 years later(A.D.406), he also rendered Avalokitesvara by the earlier and popular name Kuan-shin-yin, in the final element is “svara”[23]

who is the Avalokita -svara? In the Kāraṇḍavyūha sutra said “sakro devānām indro Brhmā ca sahaṁpatih”.[24] The Śakra king of Gods (Indra) or Heaven and Brahmā lord of the earth(sahā).same as according to the life of the Buddha[25] “when lord Buddha was born, Śakra and Brahmā attended upon him.” A lot of Buddhist scholars said Brahma became to Avalokita-savara. Brhma > Avalokitesvara

Śakara > Mahāsthāmaprāpta .[26]

For another example, Brahmā was born of the lotus. Therefore called him “Abja-ja, Abja-yoni, Kamala yoni, Kañ –ja etc.”[27] same as Avalokitasvara Bodhisatta also held a lotus in his hand. Brahma holds a water gourd. Avalokitesvara with vase abounds in Japanese iconography for ex: at the Domyoji monastery of Osaka.[28] Brahma Sahampati is the lord of the earth. He is Lokeśa in Amarakośa.Avalokitasvara too is Loka nātha and Lokeśvara.The ideograph “shih” meaning is “Loka, World” in Chinese translation.

It is clear that Brahma was converted Avalokita-svara. Brahma envisions the mantras and on the upholder of the vision enshrined in mantras.He holds the four Veda in the Hands.He is a supreme symbol of “Brahma -ghoṣa”, the revealed word of mantras. In the new terminology he was, Avalokita = seer + Svara = word/sound .We have already noted that the from Avalokita-svara is actually found in central Asian manuscripts.

Chinese – Kuan-yin , Japanese – Kannon, Korean –Kuan –yin (관세음)

Kuan/ kan / kuan -= see , Yin/on/(s)yin = sound


In the early Buddhism didn’t appear the name of Avalokitesvara. But in Pāli canon lot of sutras occurred to the name of Brhamā. For example K.N. Itiuttaka pāli- Mā puññabhāi sutta, D.N. Janawsabha sutta, D.N. Mahāpadāna sutta, D.N. Tevijja sutta, S.N.Cakkavatti sutta, D.N.Brhmajāla sutta etc. Especially in the D.N. Brhamjāla sutta represent how to the origin of Brahma.

Brahmajāla sutta said, end of the world beings is mostly reborn in the “Ābhassara Brahma world”. Then after a long period, when this world begins to expand, in this expanding world, an empty place of first Brahmā (because he comes to first at the Brahma world to earth) appears. Then in this being who has been alone for so long time, he thinks “oh. If only some other beings would come here”. Then other beings in Ābhassara Brahma world, come to Brahma place. Then first Brahma thing “that was my wish and then these beings came into this existence”. Same as others beings also think “we have seen that he had first and we arose after him”. Therefore, he is the lord maker and creator …. like that.

“Tatra, bhikkhave, yo so satto paṭhamaṃ upapanno tassa evaṃ hoti – ‘ahamasmi brahma mahābrahmā abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavattī issaro kattā nimmātā seṭṭho sajitā vasī pitā bhūtabhabyānaṃ. Mayā ime sattā nimmitā.”

“I am Brahmā, great Brahma, the conqueror, the unconquered, all seeing, the all powerful the lord, the Maker and creator, Ruler, Appointer, father of all that have been and shall be. These beings were created by me…etc.” [29]

The Brahmā appeared in many sutras. He had been a lot of power and he did many important acts in Buddhism. For example, the D.N. Mahāpadāna sutta said, the Vipassi Buddha thought “I have attained to this dhamma, which is profound, hard to see, hard to grasp…if I'll teach Dhamma, to others and they did not understand me, that would be a weariness and trouble to me.” His mind was inclined to inaction rather than teaching the Dhamma. That time Buddhas reasoning became mentally known to certain Great Brahma.

“Atha kho so, bhikkhave, mahābrahmā seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṃ vā bāhaṃ pasāreyya, pasāritaṃ vā bāhaṃ samiñjeyya; evameva brahmaloke antarahito vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa purato pāturahosi.” [30]

So this Great Brahma as swiftly as a strong man might stretch his flexed arm, or flex it again, disappeared from the Brahma-world and reappeared in front of the Buddha’s Vipassi and invited to teach Dhamma.

If we find the name of “Brahama” and “Ābhassara loka” in Korean Language and compere with Pāli language, clearly understand at the Early Buddhism canon appeared on Brahma is later called Avalokitasvara.

광음천 (kwangeumcheon) = Ābhasvara loka (light-sound heavens)

Korean pāli

광(kwan) = light (prabā/ āloka)

음(eum) = sound (svara)

천(cheon) =Heven (Deva loka)

광세음 (kwangseum), 관세음(kwanseum) = Avalokitasvara (lord of the world’s sound)

관 (kwan) = to look into (avaloka)

세 (se) = world (loka)

음 (eum) = sound (svara) [31]


Sutra words compare with Sanskrit, Korean, Pāli & their meaning

Sanskrit

Korean

Pāli

English

नमो

(namo)

나모-

(namo)

namo

be my adoration to

रत्न्त्र​याय​

(ratnatrayāya)

-다나다라야야

(ra danadara yaya)

ratanattaya

The Buddha,

his doctrine,

his community

नमः

(namo)

나막

(namak)

namo

venerate

आर्या -

(āriyā’)

알약-

(-aryak)

ariya

a noble man

-वलोकिते-

(-valokite’)

-바로기제

(-baorgije)

(avaloketi)

See, look down upon

-शवराय

(-śvarāya)

-새바라야

(-saebaraya)

Issara

The Lord, Brahmā,

(Avalokieśvara)

बोधि सत्वाय

(Bodhi sattvāya)

모지사다바야

(moji sadabaya)

Bodhisatta

Enlightenment Being

महा सत्वाय

(Mahā sattvāya)

마하사다바야

(maha sadabaya)

……..

A great being

महाकारु णिकाय

(mahā kārunikāya)

마하가로니기야

Mahakaro nikaya

mahākaruṇika

great compassionate

(om)

(om)

……..

mystical syllable

सर्व भयेषु

(sarva bhayeṣu)

살바바예수

(salba bayesu)

Sabba bhaesu

All fear

त्राण कराय

(trāṇakarāya)

다라나가라야

(darana karaya

Tāyati

protect

तस्मै

(tasmih)

다사명

(dasamyong)

tasmā

therefore

नमः स्कृत्वा

(namahskrutva)

나막가리다바

Namak karidaba

namassitvā

having venerated

इमं आर्या -

(imaṃārya’ )

이맘알야

(Imamalyak)

imaṃ ārya

This noble man

-लोकिते शवर सत्वानम्

(-lokiteśvara)

바로기제세바라다바

(barogije saebara)

……..

Avalokiteśvara

नीलकण्ट

(nīlakaṇṭa)

니라간타

(iraganta)

Nīla +

kanta

“pure” color (blue)+

Pleasant, lovely

(pure pleasant bodhisattva)

नमः

(namah)

나막

(namak)

namo

salutation

ह्रदयम् वर्त यिष्यामि

(hrahadayam varta yiśyami)

하리나야마발다이사미

(harinaya mabalta isami)

hadayaṃ

āvajana

in heart

speaking/remaining

सर्वार्थ

(sarvārta)

살발타

(salbalta)

Sabba attha

all prosperity ,advantage

साधनम्

(sādhanaṃ)

사다남

(sādanam)

sādhanaṃ

Accomplishment

शुभं

(śubham)

수반

(suban)

subha

lucky

अजेयम्

(ajeyam)

아예염

(ayeyom)

ajeyya

invincible.

सर्व

(sarva)

살바

(salba)

Sabba

all

भूतानां

(bhūtānāṃ)

보다남

(bodanam)

bhūta

living beings

भवमार्ग

(bhavamārga)

바바말아

(babamara)

bhavamagga

path of existence

विशोधकं

(viśodhakaṃ)

미수다감

(misudakam)

visodha

purifies

तद्यथा

(tadyathā)

다냐타

(danyata)

seyyathā

as follows, like this

(om)

(om)

……..

mystical syllable

आलोके आलोक

(āloke āloka)

아로계아로가

(aroge aroga)

Āloke ālokā

Light, Effulgence

मतिलोका

(matilokā)(ālokapati)

마지로가

(majiroga)

Atikkama + loka

Exceeded the world

(the World- Transcending One )

अतिक्रान्त​

(atikrānta)

지가란제

(jigaranje)

atikkanta

Having passed

transgressed

महाबोधि सत्वाय

(mahā bodhisattva)

마하모지사다바

(mahamojo sadabā)

Mahā Bodhisatta

Great Enlightenment Being

स्मर स्मर

(smara smara)

사마라사마라

(samara samara)

sati

Remembering

memory

हृदयम्

(hṛdayaṁ)

하리나야

(harinaya)

hadaya

The heart

कुरु कुरु

(kuru kuru)

구로구로

(kuro kuro)

……..

Doing

Accomplish

कर्म​

(karma)

갈마

(kalma)

kammaṃ

action

साधय

(sādhaya)

사다야사다야

(sadayā sadayā)

sādheti

to make hard or firm

धरु धरु

(Dharu dharu)

도로도로미연제

(doro doro miyeonje)

Dhara dhara

vijya

Hold,

keeping in mind ,victor

महा विजयन्ते

(maha vijayanta e)

마하미연제

(maha miyeonje)

Vijaya

Great Victor

धर​ धर​

(dhara dhara)

다라다라

(dara dara)

dhara

Hold Hold

धरणिंधरेश्वर​

(dharaṇiṃdhareśvara)

다린나례새바라

(darinnare sebarā)

……..

King of Dharani

चर​ चर​

(cara cara)

자라자라

(cala cala)

cala

Move, Move

मल्लविमल

(mallavimala)

마라미마라

(mara mimara)

Mala

Vimala

Impurity

spotless, clean

अमला

(amala)

아마라

(amara)

amala

Faultless,

without stain or fault

मूर्त्ते

(mūrtte)

몰제

(molje)

……..

foolishness

spotless image

एहि एहि

(eheai)

예혜혜

(yehe he)

Ehi ehi

Come, come near

लोकेशवर​

(lokeśvara)

로계세바라

(roge sebara)

……..

Lokeśvara (name of bodhisattva)

राग विषंवि नाशाय

(raga viṣaṃ nāśāya )

라아미사미나사야

(ra misami nasaya)

Rāga , visa, nassati

Lust, poison, to be ruined

द्वेष विषवि नाशाय

(dveṣa viṣaṃ nāśāya)

나베사미사미나사--

(nabe sami sami nasaya)

Dosa, visa, nassati

Hatred, poison, to be ruined

मोह जाल विषवि नाशाय

(moha jāla viṣaṃ nāśāya)

모하자라미사미나사야(mohajara misami nasaya)

Moha, visa, nassati

Delusion , poison , to be ruined

हुलु हुलु

(hulu hulu)

호로호로

(horohoro)

……..

an exclamation of joy

मल्लाहुलु

(mallahulu)

마라호로

(marahoro)

……..

Strong, excellent

(an exclamation of joy)

हरे

(hare)

하례

(harye)

……..

Avalokiteśvara

(हरेश्वर –Śiva)

पद्मनाभ​

(padmanābha)

바나바나바

(banama naba)

……..

(Name of viṣṇu /Brhama)

Avalokiteśvara

सर सर​

(sara sara)

사라사라

(sarasara)

……..

moving hither and thither

(goingmoving)

सिरि सिरि

(siri siri)

시리시리

(sirisiri)

Siri siri

luck, glory,wealth

सुरु सुरु

(suru suru)

소로소로

(sorosoro)

…….

ruling or shining

बोधिय बोधिय

(bodhiya bodhiya)

못쟈못쟈

(motjamotjya)

Bodhi

enlightened

बोधाय​​ बोधाय​​

(Bodhaya bodhaya)

모다야모다야

(modaya modaya)

……..

illuminated

मैत्रिय

(maitriya)

매다리야

(medariya)

metta

friendlybenevolent

नीलकण्टकामस्य​

(nīlakaṇtakamasya)

니라간타가마사

(niragnta kamasa)

……..

pure pleasant bodhisattva

दर्शनं

(darśanaṃ)

날사남

(nalsanam)

dassanaṃ

showingillustrating

equals dharma (doctrine)

प्रहाल्दय​

(prahāldaya)

바라하라나야

(bara haranaya)

……..

pleasure

मनः

(manah)

마낙

(manak)

mana

mind consciousness

स्वाहा

(svāha)

사바하

(sabaha)

…….

hail!

(an exclamation used in making oblations to the gods)

सिद्धाय

(siddhāya)

싣다야

(shiddaya)

siddha

accomplished, fulfilled,

(one)

स्वाहा

(svāha)

사바하

(sabaha)

…….

hail!

महासिद्धाय

(mahāsiddhāya)

마하싣다야

(maha shiddaya)

…….

Great fulfilled one

स्वाहा

(svāha)

사바하

(sabaha)

…….

hail!

सिद्ध​

(siddha)

시다유예

(siddayuye)

siddha

Effected /succeeded

योगेश्वराय

(yogeśvarāya)

새바라야

(saebaraya)

…….

The Lord, Brahmā,

(Avalokieśvara)

स्वाहा

(svāha)

사바하

(sabaha)

…….

hail!

नीलकण्टया

(nīlakaṇtayā)

니라간타야

(nirakanttaya)

…….

pure pleasant bodhisattva

स्वाहा

(svāha)

사바하

(sabaha)

…….

hail!

वराह मुख

(varāha mukha)

바라하목카

(mahara mokka)

Varāha mukha

Boar-faced

(often used as an epithet of the Viṣṇu )

सिंह मुखाय

(siha mukhāya)

싱하목카야

(shingha mokkaya)

Sīha mukha

the Lion Face,

(often used as an epithet of the Buddha)

स्वाहा

(svāha)

사바하

(sabaha)

……..

hail!

पद्म

(padma)

바나마

(banama)

padma

a lotus

हस्ताय

(sthāya)

하따야

(hattaya)

hattha

a hand

स्वाहा

(svāha)

사바하

(sabaha)

…….

hail!

चक्रायुधाय​

(cakrāyudhāya)

자가라육다야

(jakarayoktaya)

…….

Weapon like as discus, Viṣṇu

स्वाहा

(svāha)

사바하

(sabaha)

…….

hail!

शङ्ख सब्द निबोधनाय​

(śaṅkha sabda nibodhanāya)

상카섭나네모다나야

(sankaseopnane modanaya)

…….

the conch-shell - used like a wind instrument, sound, for waking

स्वाहा

(svāha)

사바하

(sabaha)

……..

hail!

महा लकुट धराय​

(Mahā lakuṭa dharāya)

마하라구타다라야

(mahara kutt daraya)

lakuṭa

stick hold (used)

as weapon

स्वाहा

(svāha)

사바하

(sabaha)

……..

hail!

वामस्कन्ध

(vāmaskandha)

바마사간타

(bamasaganta)

……..

lovely, dear, pleasant body

(often used as an epithet of the Śiva)

देश स्थित​

(deśa sthita-)

이사시체다

(isa shicheda)

……..

With part, portion

कृष्णा जिनाय

(kruṣṇā jināya) )

가릿나이나야

(karina inaya))

……..

Name of a celebrated Avatar of the god Viṣṇu

स्वाहा

(svāhā)

사바하

(sabaha)

……..

hail!

व्याघ्र चर्म​

(vyāghra carma)

먀가라잘마

(Magara calma)

……..

a tiger's skin (Name of one of the śiva ’s-attendants व्याघ्रवक्त्र )

निवसनया

(nivasanāya)

니바사나야

(niba sanaya)

……..

Dwelling, putting on cloth

स्वाहा

(svāhā)

사바하

(sabaha)

……..

hail!

नमो

(namo)

나모-

(namo)

namo

be my adoration to

रत्न्त्र​याय​

(ratnatrayāya)

-다나다라야야

(ra danadara yaya)

ratanattaya

The Buddha,

his doctrine,

his community

नमःआर्यावलोकिते शवराय (namoāriyāvalokie-śvarāya)

나막알약바로기제새바라야(namak arya baorgije saebaraya

……..

Venerate a noble man Avalokieśvara

स्वाहा

(svāhā)

사바하

(sabaha)

……..

hail!

The Important words of sutra

The Maha karuṇa Dharani sutra has a included considerable words. In this topic would be discussing that words and, through those words what are the philosophical side of this sutra.

Namo –

It is used constantly meaning for saluation or honor.Ofen placed in front of an object of veneration.For examples in Korean,

“Namo amitābul” (나무아미타불) – obeisance to the Amitabha.

“Namo radanadara yaya” (나모라 다나다라 야야) – I devote myself entirely to the tiratana.

In the Pāli canon also used that an exclamation of adoration at the beginning of an all book

“ Namo tassa Bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa”

The Theravāda tradition represented the word of “Namo”, Firstly it used by the Sātāgiri Yaksa. He used it a salutation for Buddha. It has especial meaning. In Pāli language “Na” is a negative particle and here it used for “ abstinence of evil, wrongdoing, sin”. “mo” is used meaning for “release, freedom (mokkha) Nibbāna”. Therefore “Namo “ is “abstinence wrongdoing and enter to Nibbana”.

Ratana-traya (Triple Gem)

Most commonly use that word for in English Triple Gem. In Pāli language “Ratana” meaning is a “Gem, Jewel”, Gems (Ratna) as they are invaluable,[32] “Taya” is “three”. Therefore “Ratanattaya” is the three precious ones; the Buddha, Dhamma, and Saṅgha.

Buddha

The Enlightened One; who depending on one's interpretation, can mean the Historical Buddha, Shakyamuni, or the Buddha nature or ideal within all beings. 'Buddha' can be divided into a number of levels;

I. Buddha-nimitta- representatives of the Buddha, such as Buddha images or stupas in which relics of the Buddha are placed.
II. Buddha-guna- the qualities that form the inner symbol of the Buddha, i.e., the proper practice of his teachings. Whoever takes a stand in this manner is bound to be victorious both within and without, safe from such enemies as temptation and mortality.

Dharma

The Teaching; which is the Teachings of the Buddha.

I. Pariyatti - studying the words of the Buddha as recorded in the Canon — the Discipline, the Discourses, and the Abhidhamma.
II. Patipatti - following the practice of moral virtue, concentration, and discernment as derived from one's study of the Canon.
III. Pativedha - Liberation.

Sangha

The Community; The Community of those great people who have attained Enlightenment. so that those people(Sangha) will help you to attain Enlightenment. The community is divided two parts.

I. Sammuti-sangha - the conventional Sangha.
II. Ariya-sangha - the Noble Sangha.

The Triple Gem is important and is one of the major practices of mental "reflection" in Buddhism, we reflect on the true qualities of the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. These qualities are called the Mirror of the Dharma in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta and help us attain the true "mind like a mirror".[33] The expression Three Gems are found in the earliest Buddhist literature of the Pali Canon, besides other works, there is one sutta in the Sutta-Nipata, called the Ratana-sutta,[34] which contains a series of verses on the Jewels in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. In the Ratana-sutta, all the qualities of the Sangha mentioned are attributes of the Buddha's enlightened disciples.

Ārya

A noble man who has thought on the four noble truths (caturarya Sathya) of Buddhism and according to them “ārya, ariya ”.That term of “ ārya or ariya ” used in the many places of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. Because it has deep meaning. For examples, it used many kinds of main Buddhist terms.

I. The Four Noble Truths are called the catvāry ārya satyāni (Sanskrit) or cattāri ariya saccāni (Pali).
II. The Noble Eightfold Path is called the ārya mārga (Sanskrit, also āryāṣṭāṅgikamārga) or ariya magga (Pāli).
III. Buddha's Dharma and Vinaya are the ariyassa dhammavinayo.

IV. In the Theravada Buddhism represent who have attained one of the four levels of awakening (stream-entry, once returner, non-returner, arahant) are themselves are called ariya puggalas (Arya persons).

There for scholars discuss that word meaning like that;

“The way to nirvana is spoken of in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta as the ‘eightfold path’. In its fullest development, this is the eightfold (or eight-dimensioned) way of the Aryas. The Aryas are the noble ones, the saints, those who have attained ‘the fruits of the path’, ‘that middle path the Tathagata has comprehended which promotes sight and knowledge, and which tends to peace, higher wisdom, enlightenment, and Nibbana’ (Narada 1980:50).”[35]

In the Mahayana tradition also used that word for same meaning. For example, The Kāraṇḍavyūha Sūtra (कारण्डव्यूहः सूत्रम् )[36] is which extols the virtues and powers of Avalokiteśvara, and is particularly notable for introducing the mantra “Om mani padme hum” into the sūtra tradition. In this sutra describes how Avalokiteśvara taught the “ārya” Dharma to the asuras, yakṣas and rakṣasas.

Mahākarunā

This word very interesting in this sutra. Because “karuṇa” is one of the key words in this sutra. In this sutta mainly represent compassion of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattvas.

Karuṇā (in both Sanskrit and Pali) is generally translated as compassion. In the Theravada tradition, Karuṇā is one of the 4 qualities "divine abodes" (brahmavihāra) of character significant of a human being who has attained enfranchisement of heart (ceto-vimutti) in the four sentiments;

01. loving kindness (mettā),
02. Great compassionate (Karuṇā )
03. sympathetic joy (mudita),
04. equanimity (upekkha). [37]

In the Pali canon have many kinds of definition for that word. for examples;

“paradukkhe sati sādhūnaṁ hadayakampanaṁ karotī ti karuna”[38]

“sattesu karuana karuṇāyanā karuṇāyitattaṁ karuṇā cetovimutti” [39]

The Buddha recommends cultivating these four virtuous mental states to both householders and monastics.Such a practice purifies one's mind, avoids evil-induced consequences, leads to happiness in one's present life and if there is a future karmic rebirth, rebirth in a heavenly realm.

In Mahāyāna Buddhism, Akṣayamatinirdeśa sutra represented the Bodhisattvas great compassion is also imperishable. Because it is a prerequisite. In sutra said,

“As a rich man or householder has heartfelt love for his only virtuous son, just so the Bodhisattva with great compassion has heartfelt love for all being”[40]

Same as in sutra discuss “why called great compassion? Thus great compassion is what effects generosity, effects morality, effects tolerance, effects insight, effects expedient means, effects all moments of existence that are wings of awakening etc; (evaṃ mahākaruṇā dānakāraṇam sīlakāraṇam kṣāntikāraṇam vīryakāraṇam dhyānakāraṇam prajñakāraṇam upāyakāraṇam sarva bodhipakṣyadharmakāraṇam ….)

It has its origin in being engaged in whatever action is necessary for all beings, thus it is called great compassion.

mettā

The Pali word metta is a multi-significant term meaning loving-kindness, friendliness etc. It is One of the ten perfections (pāramīs) and one of the four "sublime abodes" (brahma-vihāra). Pali commentators define metta as the strong wish for the welfare and happiness of others (parahita-parasukha-kamana). Metta makes one a pure font of well-being and safety for others. Just as a mother gives her own life to protect her child, so metta only gives and never wants anything in return.

The Metta Sutta[41] consists of three parts, each of which focuses on a distinct aspect of metta.

I. The first part (lines 3 to 10) covers that aspect which requires a thorough and systematic application of loving-kindness in one's day-to-day conduct.
II. The second part (lines 11 to 20) expresses loving-kindness as a distinct technique of meditation or culture of mind leading to samadhi - higher consciousness induced by absorption.
III. And the third part (lines 21 to 40) underlines a total commitment to the philosophy of universal love and its personal, social and empirical extensions -loving-kindness through all bodily, verbal and mental activities

Hulu

The virtue of mudita , finding joy in the happiness and success of others. In the Visuddhimagga, joy is categorized according to its intensity and the effect it can have on the body;

I. minor joy (khuddikā pīti)
II. momentary joy (khaṇikā pīti)
III. showering joy (okkantikā pīti)
IV. uplifting joy (ubbegā pīti)
V. pervading joy (pharaṇā pīti)

In Mahayana tradition Akṣayamatinirdeśa sutra said;

“tatra katamā mahāmuditā? Ya buddhadharmasmaraṇanusmaraṇt pritih prasādh prāmodayam”.[42]

When then is great joy? It is gladness , harmony and delight resulting from remembrance and recollection of the qualities of a Buddha.

Bodhisattva

Bodhisattva is 'Enlightenment Being', a being destined to Buddhahood,a future Buddha.In the Theravada tradition of Pāḷi Canon and commentaries,the designation 'Bodhisatta' is given only to Prince Siddhattha before his enlightenment and to his former existences. There for Bodhisatta is used in the Pāli Canon to refer to Gautama Buddha in his previous lives and as a young man in his current life in the period during which he was working towards his own liberation. The Buddha also himself uses this term when speaking of his life prior to enlightenment. In the Dīga nikāya ,Mahā vagga, Mahāpadāna sutta Buddhas describes bodhisattva life. That term defines in the D.N. Pāli commentaries like that;

“Bodhisatto ti panditasatto bujjhanakasatto; bodhisankhātesu vā catusu maggesu āsatto laggamānaso ti Bodhisatto.”[43]

Mahāyāna Buddhism is based principally upon the path of a bodhisattva. The term Mahāyāna ("Great Vehicle") was originally even an honorary synonym for Bodhisattvayāna or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle. Mahāyāna Buddhism encourages everyone to become bodhisattvas and to take the bodhisattva vows. The fourfold vow is as practiced by the Mahayana traditions of China, Japan, and Korea. Example for in Korea represent the four universal vows (사홍서원) of a Bodhisattva.

01. 중생무변서원도 – to save all living beings without limit
02. 번뇌무진서원단 – to put an end to all passions and delusions, however, numerous
03. 법문무량서원학 – to study and learn all methods and means without end
04. 불도무상서원성 – to become perfect in the supreme Buddha –law.[44]

The four vows are considered as arising one by one out of the (사제) Four Noble Truths.

According to many traditions within Mahāyāna Buddhism, on the way to becoming a Buddha, a bodhisattva proceeds through ten, or sometimes fourteen, grounds or Bhūmis. Represented to the Avataṃsaka Sūtra (Sanskrit: Mahāvaipulya Buddhāvataṃsaka Sūtra, Korean “Daebanggwang Bulhwaeom Gyeong” (대방광불화엄경) or “Hwaeom Gyeong” (화엄경)[45], those “Bhumi”. Same as before a Bodhisattva arrives at the first ground, he or she first must travel the first two of the five paths. Five paths are,

1. The path of accumulation (saṃbhāra-mārga) - Persons on this Path;
1. Possess a strong desire to overcome suffering, either their own or others;
2. Renounce the worldly life.
2. The path of preparation or application (prayoga-mārga, Persons on this Path:
1. Start practicing meditation;
2. Have analytical knowledge of emptiness.
3. The path of seeing (darśana-mārga). Persons on this Path:
1. Practice profound concentration meditation on the nature of reality;
2. Realize the emptiness of reality
4. The path of meditation (bhāvanā-mārga,). Persons on this path purify themselves and accumulate wisdom.
5. The path of no more learning or consummation (aśaikṣā-mārga). Persons on this Path have completely purified themselves

There for before attaining the ten grounds, the bodhisattva traverses the first two of the

2. The path of accumulation
3. The path of preparation

And then ten grounds of the bodhisattva are grouped within the three subsequent paths:

1. Bhūmi 1: The path of seeing
2. Bhūmi 2-7: The path of meditation
3. Bhūmi 8-10: The path of no more learning [46]

In the Avataṃsaka Sūtra refers 10 grounds are: (Korean Buddhism represent it “Teji” (대지법 > 수(su), 상 (sang), 사(sa), 촉(chok), 욕(yok), 혜(hye), 염(yeom), 작의(jakui), 승해(seunghyae), 삼마지(sammaji.)[47]

1. Great Joy: In this bhūmi the practice of the bodhisattva all perfections (pāramitās), but especially emphasizing generosity (dāna).
2. Stainless: In this bhūmi the emphasized perfection is moral discipline (śīla).
3. Luminous: The emphasized perfection is patience (kṣānti).
4. Radiant: The emphasized perfection is vigor (vīrya).
5. Very difficult to train: The emphasized perfection is meditative concentration (dhyāna).
6. Obviously Transcendent: The emphasized perfection is wisdom (prajñā).
7. Gone afar: the Particular emphasis is on the perfection of skillful means (upāya), to help others.
8. Immovable: The emphasized virtue is an aspiration.
9. Good Discriminating Wisdom: The emphasized virtue is power.
10. Cloud of Dharma: The emphasized virtue is the practice of primordial wisdom.

After the ten bhūmis, according to Mahāyāna Buddhism, one attains complete enlightenment.

Sarva Bhaya

“Bhaya” means fear or fright. In the early Buddhism represent many kinds of fear. For example, in Early Buddhism Anguttara Nikaya, Catukka Nipata has two chapters, “Bhaya vagga” [48] and “Kesivagga”. In this chapters, sutra are a reference to four types of fears;

“ Cattārimāni, bhikkhave, bhayāni. Katamāni cattāri?

Paṭhamabhayasutta - Jātibhayaṃ, jarābhayaṃ, byādhibhayaṃ, maraṇabhayaṃ

(fear of birth, fear of aging, fear of illness, fear of death)

Dutiyabhayasutta -Aggibhayaṃ, udakabhayaṃ, rājabhayaṃ, corabhayaṃ

(fear of fire, fear of water, fear of king, fear of Thieves)

Attānuvādasutta - Attānuvādabhayaṃ, parānuvādabhayaṃ, daṇḍabhayaṃ, duggatibhayaṃ

(Fear of self-reproach, fear of others' reproach, fear of punishment, fear of lower worlds)

In the A.N. Bhaya sutta[49], the Buddha said "Monks uneducated run-of-the-mill people describe three things as mother-&-child-separating dangers. Which three? When a great fire-conflagration breaks out, when a great cloud arises, when there are danger and an invasion of savage tribes. But (genuine) mother-&-child-should think other three separating dangers. Which three? The danger of aging, the danger of illness, the danger of death.Therefore there is a path that leads to the abandoning and overcoming these three fear. which is that path, which is that practice...? Just this very noble eightfold path, i.e., right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

Tāyati –

Kāyena saṃvaro sādhu sādhu vācāya saṃvaro,
Manasā saṃvaro sādhu sādhu sabbattha saṃvaro,
Sabbattha saṃvuto lajjī rakkhitoti pavuccatīti.
Restraint with the body is good,
good is restraint with speech.
Restraint with the heart is good,
good is restraint everywhere.
Restrained everywhere,
conscientious,
one is said to be protected.[50]

Philosophy of Sutra

Rāga, Dosa, Moha

“Mūla” is Literally, "root." The fundamental conditions in the mind that determine the moral quality - skillful (kusala) or unskillful (akusala) - of one's intentional actions ( kamma). In the A.N. Mūla sutta the Buddha said; “monks there are these three roots is unskillful (akusala). Which three? Greed, aversion, delusion.” The skillful roots are their opposites.

Rāga - (Greed, passion,desire “lobha”)

Dosa - (Aversion, hatred, anger)

Moha - ( Delusion, ignorance “avijjā”).

The sutra said;"Greed itself is unskillful. Whatever a greedy person fabricates by means of the body, speech, or intellect, that too is unskillful. Whatever suffering a greedy person - his mind overcome with greed, his mind consumed - wrongly inflicts on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] 'I have power. I want power,' that too is unskillful. Thus it is that many evil, unskillful qualities/events - born of greed, caused by greed, originated through greed, conditioned by greed. Same as represented other two of Dosa (Aversion) and Moha (Delusion).

“Evarūpo bhikkhave puggalo lobhajehi pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto diṭṭhe ce'va dhamme dukkhaṃ viharati savighātaṃ savupāyāsaṃ sapariḷāhaṃ, kāyassa ca bhedā parammaraṇā duggati pāṭikaṅkhā” [51]

"A person like this - his mind overcome with evil, unskillful qualities born of greed... born of aversion... born of delusion, his mind consumed - dwells in suffering right in the here-&-now - feeling threatened, turbulent, feverish - and at the break-up of the body, after death, can expect a bad destination”

In the S.N. Avijjā sutta [52] ; asked monks the Buddhas;

"Lord, is there any one thing with whose abandoning in a monk ignorance is abandoned and clear knowing arises? The Buddha reply to them;

"He sees the eye (Cakkhuṃ) as something separate (aniccato). He sees forms (Rūpe) as something separate. He sees eye-consciousness (Cakkhuviññāṇaṃ ) as something separate. He sees eye contact as something separate (Cakkhusamphassaṃ ). And whatever arises in dependence on eye-contact experienced either as pleasure, as pain, or as neither-pleasure-nor-pain (Yampidaṃ cakkhu samphassa paccayā uppajjati vedayitaṃ sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā tampi) - that too he sees as something separate. same as he sees as ear, nose, tongue, body, mind as something separate. This is how a monk knows, this is how a monk sees so that ignorance is abandoned and clear knowing arises.

Religious background of Sutra

In the full text of Mahayana represent what are the benefits of this Dharani sutra. In the first topic, we discussed not easy to attain to Nibbana of all people.It has climbed to eight steps. Maybe need to spend a long time in this (Saṃsāra) 'round of rebirth' (That time the second class of laity is thought about “If we cannot enter to Nibbana, how about our next birth? How we spend that long time with safety in this Saṃsāra?”. Therefore, the Buddha preached to “Dharani” or in the early Buddhism “Paritta” for the protection of the devotees.

Especially in the Theravada Buddhist countries where the Pāli language is used for recitals.Mahāyana Buddhist countries used for Sanskrit language or their own language for recitals.Monks are recite this kind of Dharani or Paritta sutras to bless devotees.That blessing is just like talking medicine (Paracetamol) when a person has a headache. After a few hours, a person gets back the headache. That’s nature of this kind of blessing. Just to calm our mind, to reduce fear from your mind and develop some sort of confidence in our mind. At the primary and initial stage, this blessing is very important. However, people must evolve to the next level.

"Paritta" in Pāli, "Paritrana" in Sanskrit and "Pirit" in Sinhala, mean principally protection. Paritta suttas describe certain suttas or discourses delivered by the Buddha and regarded as affording protection. This protection is to be obtained by reciting or listening to the paritta suttas. The word paritta, in this context, was used by the Buddha, for the first time, in a discourse known as Khandha Paritta, and also in the Anguttara Nikaya under the title "Ahi (Metta) Sutta". [53] This discourse was recommended by the Buddha as guard or protection for the use of the members of the Order. The Buddha in this discourse exhorts the monks to cultivate Metta or loving-kindness towards all beings.

In the Mahā karuṇā Dharani sutra, full text represented, if who recite that sutra, what are its benefits. It also same as Early Buddhism “benefits of Paritta”. We can represent many examples in Early Buddhism.

The Buddhas time the city of Vesali was afflicted by a famine, causing death, especially to the poor folk. Due to the presence of decaying corpses, the evil spirits began to haunt the city. Therefore, the Buddha with a Venerable Ananda and a large number of monks came to the city of Vesali. With the arrival of the Master, there were torrential rains which swept away the putrefying corpses. The atmosphere became purified; the city was clean. Thereupon the Buddha delivered Jewel Discourse [54] (Tiratana/Ratana sutta) to the Venerable Ananda and gave him instructions as to how he should tour the city with the Licchavi citizens reciting the discourse as a mark of protection to the people of Vesali. The Venerable Ananda followed the instructions and sprinkled the sanctified water from the Buddha's own alms bowl. As a consequence, the evil spirits were exorcised, the pestilence subsided.

Another example, on one occasion the Blessed One was living near Savatthi at Jetavana at Anathapindika's monastery. At that time at Savatthi a certain monk had died bitten by a snake. The Buddha said “"That monk has not suffused with thoughts of loving-kindness (Metta) the four royal tribes of snakes. Had he done so, that monk would not have died of snake-bite? Monks, I enjoin you to suffuse with thoughts of loving-kindness four royal tribes of snakes for your safety, for your preservation and for your protection." [55]

In the Dharani sutra also said

“when walking in wilderness, mountain or marsh,
if encountering tigers, wolves, or other fierce beasts,
or snakes, spirits, demons, monsters, ghosts,
they will be unable to harm the Mantra-holder when they hear this Mantra”

In Early Buddhism “the Mittanisaṃsa” sutra represented ten stanzas recounting the beneficial effects of friendship, are found in the Mugapakkha (Temiya) Jataka.[56] Same as in the Discourse on Advantages of Loving-kindness (Mettanisamsa Sutta) the Buddha said "Monks, eleven advantages are to be expected from the release (deliverance) of heart by familiarizing oneself with thoughts of loving-kindness (Metta).

1. "He sleeps in comfort.
2. He awakes in comfort.
3. He sees no evil dreams.
4. He is dear to human beings.
5. He is dear to non-human beings.
6. Devas (gods) protect him.
7. Fire, poison, and sword cannot touch him.
8. His mind can concentrate quickly.
9. His countenance is serene.
10. He dies without being confused in mind.
11. If he fails to attain Arahantship (the highest sanctity here and now, he will be reborn in the Brahma-world.[57]

That fact also 80% same with Dharani sutra concepts of “who recite and hold that Dharani will obtain fifteen kinds of good birth and will not suffer fifteen kinds of bad death.”

The Venerable Angulimala while on his rounds for alms in Savatthi saw a pregnant woman was suffering. After his meal, he approached the Buddha and told him what he had seen. Thereupon the Buddha taught him Protective Discourse to Angulimala (Angulimala Paritta).

"Since I was born of Aryan birth, O sister, I am not aware of having intentionally deprived any living being of his life. By this asseveration of Truth may you be well! May thy unborn child be well!" [58]

He then went to the presence of the suffering sister, sat on a seat separated from her by a screen, and made this asseveration of the Truth. Instantly she gave birth to the child with great ease. In this Dharani sutra also say;

“When a woman is giving birth to child,
evil demons come to obstruct the birth and causing suffering and oppressive pain,
recite the Great Compassion Dharani sincerely,
the demons will disperse, leaving a safe and comfortable birth.”

Finally, in Dharani sutra say,

“…Dragons, ghosts, and spirits will protect this country, the rains will be seasonal, the fruits will be abundant, and the people will be happy”

In the Pāli Paritta also end of the chanting same meaning stanza,

“Devo vassatu kālena
Sassa sampatti hotu ca
Pīto bhavatu loko ca
Raja bhavatu dhammiko”

Sanskrit Text of Dharaṇi sutra

(Text of JI-UN-SONJA)

namo ratnatrayāya / nama āriyĀvalokiteśvarāya bodhisatvāya mahāsattvāya mahākārunikāya / om sarva bhayeṣu trāṇakarāya tasya namahskṛutvā imaṃ āryĀlokiteśvara nīlakaṇṭanama /hrahadayaṃ vartayiśyāmi sarvārta sādhanaṃ śubham/ ajeyam sarva bhūtānāṃ bhavamārga viśodhakaṃ/ tadyathā /om āloka e ālokapati matilokā atikrānta/ehy ehi hare mahābodhisattva /smara smara mama hṛdayaṁ /kuru kuru karma/ Dhuru dhuru vijatanta e maha vijayanta e/ dhara dhara dharaṇiṃdhareśvara raja /cara cara mallavimala amala mūrtte /ehy ehi lokeśvara/ rāga viṣaṁ vināśāya/ dveṣa viṣaṁ vināśāya/ moha jāla viṣaṁ vināśāya/ hulu hulu malla/hulu hare padmanābha/ sara sara siri siri suru suru/ bodhiya bodhiya bodhaya bodhaya/ maitriya nīlakaṇta/ darśane prahāldaya manah svāhā/ siddhāya svāhā/ mahāsiddhāya svāhā /siddha yogeśvarāya svāhā/ nīlakaṇtayā svāhā/ varāhamukha siṃhamukhāya svāhā/ Padmahasthaya svāhā/ cakrāhastāya svāhā /śaṅkha sabda nibodhanāya svāhā /Mahā lakuṭa dharāya svāhā/vāmaskandha deśa sthita- kruṣṇājināya svāhā/ vyāghra carma nivasanāya svāhā/ namo ratnatrayāya/ āriyĀvalokiteśvarāya svāhā// smāpta//

Conclusion

The Mahā Karuṇa dharaṇi sutra (small text) can divide into six sections.

01.Initial Salutation -

Adoration to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.

02. Veneration to Avalokiteśvara and his characteristic –

The Noble man, the lord Brahma, Enlightenment Being, Great Being, Great merciful one, Protector (all fear) of Avalokiteśvara.

03. Enunciate of the merit of this Dharaṇi –

This Dharani accomplishment of all prosperity & lucky, it is pure and invincible all beings and purifies the path of existence.

04. Dharṇi (philosophy of sutra) –

The Effulgence of World-Transcending One, Great Enlightenment Being, remembering the heart and doing action, keeping mind, Great Victor, king of Dharani, move my impurity, clean without stain or fault, foolishness. Bodhisattva destroys every poison of lust, hatred, Delusion.Moving hither & thither, luck, shining, illuminate, Enlightened, friendly pure pleasant Bodhisattva; showing me dharma (doctrine) with pleasure mind.

05. The other names of Avalokiteśvara –

  • Fulfilled one
  • Great Fulfilled one
  • Succeeded one
  • The lord one
  • Pure pleasant one
  • The Boar faced one (epithet of Viṣnu)
  • The Lion face one (epithet of Buddha)
  • Hold a lotus with hand one
  • Hold a weapon like as Discus one
  • Hold a conch –shell one
  • Hold a weapon like as stick
  • Pleasant body one (epithet of śiva)
  • Name of Ḳuṣna (epithet of Viṣṇu)
  • Dwelling with a Tiger’s skin ( epithet of Śiva)

06. Final Salutation –

Adoration to the Triple Gem and adoration to the noble Āvalokiteśvarā Bodhisattva.

Study of deeply this six kinds of the section, we can understand two kinds of facts;

Frist one is in this sutra, the most important part is section number four. In this part discuss what are unskillful roots (Loba, Dosa, Moha). Because it is one of the main points of Buddhist philosophy. The Blessed one said;

“yathāpi mūle anupaddave daḷhe
Chinno'pi rukkho punareva rūhati
Evampi taṇhānusaye anūhate
Nibbatti dukkhamidaṃ punappunaṃ.”[59]

Just as a tree, though cut down, sprouts up again if its roots remain uncut and firm, even so, until the craving that lies dormant is rooted out, suffering springs up, again and again, so in the sutra mainly represent destroys that unskillful roots and build up skillful thing in mind. It is Dharaṇi because all being should memorize that.

Second one is the section number five represent for other names of Avalokiteśvara. It clearly saw us how about influence Hinduism in this sutra and concept of Avalokiteśvara. because that all name does not use in Early Buddhism ( Pāli Canon).Those all name used in Sanskrit literature and Hindusim for their Gods.



Footnotes

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