Pandit Vihar : The Old University of Chittagong by Venerable Dr. Jinabodhi Bhikkhu
The name of the south-east region of ancient Bengal called Chaityabhumi is now known as Chittagong. This world famous Port City surrounded by rocky hills and natural beauty and sea is called the Queen of the East. This place carries the glorious history and ancient cultural history of Buddhists. From one of the sources it is known that Chaityagram was the previous name of Chittagong. The Chaitya indicates the Buddhist Temple or Buddhist Monastery where different subjects were studied. It was considered not only as the holy place of Buddhist study and worship but also the holy place of Buddha’s visit here. In the seventh century during his visit to this place he remarked it as Sree Chattal as a hilly place with many temples situated to the South-West of Samatat. Some historious think that the name of the source of the word Chittagong from Chaityagram. it is natural to be Chittagong from Chaityagram as there were many Chaityas everywhere. The Scholars say that Burma (now Myanmar) is situated to the South of Tripura and North of Arakan. Then the name of the capital city was Sri Chattal (Govinda Chandra Giti Page, 54).
This is the ancient history of Chittagong. This Sri Chattal was the place of ancient glorious history, religion and culture of Buddhism. It is the conception of the scholars that in the golden age of then the Buddhist kings Called SriChattala the land of peace. An international Buddhist University named Pandit Vihar was built here. A Tebetan book named Jyag-Sanjan translated by Roy Bahadur Sarat Chandra Das in English gives us the idea about the history of Buddhism. From this old book we get the description of the foundation of many Buddhist monasteries in East Bengal during the reign of Pala Kings. The Port City Chittagong situated to the South-East region of Bengal (Bangladesh) has an old history. In ancient time Chittagong was known as various names in different times. It arises the curiosity of the people about the naming differently. Chittagong was known as Jalandhar, Samandar, Chaitygram, Chattala, Chatugam, Chaitygram, Chattala, Chatigaon, Chit-ta-Gong etc. Beside this the other names were Pushpaur, Sahare Sabaj (Green City). Karnabul, Ramyastan, Satera Kaon (Sadkaon), Chattigam etc. Though Portugees called Chittagong Porto Grande (Great port) in the description of De. Beros, Feria-e-Suja the Portugees writers the name Chatigam was mentioned there. Even in the tax statement of Todarmal the revenue Secretary of the Emperor Akbar the word Chatgam is found and latern Bujarga Umed Khan the son of Sayestakhan mentioned Chittagong as Islamabad which was brought under the rule of Mogal Empire. It is known from the ancient diary of the proprietor of house. Mr. Hejal that during the reign of the English the name Chatigam was used instead of Islamabad. Later on Chattagram and Chittagong was accepted as modern name Chittagong which was the center of communication between India and South-East Asia. In ancient time Chittagong was wellknown in the world for the Buddhist culture and civilization known from the Tibetan books Pag-Sam-Zone Jone written by Sumpa Kahnnula and Kabat-Dun-Dan written by historian Lama Taranath that the name of this land was Jalandhar (J.A.S.B. volume (1918) page-21-23). Later on from Jalandhar it is called Jalandhar which means a place of hot waters
In ancient time Chittagong was ruled by Arakanese Kings. It is known from the Arakanese history ‘Rajbritta Rajoang that from the middle of the second century i.e. in 146 Chandra Suriya King of Magdh Kingdom ruled Arakan including Chittagong and established his capital at Dhanyabati. The followers soldiers and leaders of the Kings were engaged in preaching Indian culture and religion. The King Chandra Suriya at first building Mahamuni Pagoda at Arakan installed Buddha statue there. Among the 25 Kings of Chandra dynasty the first 11 Kings ruled Arakan with Chittagong upto 1st Century.
According to Chinese traveller Huen Tsang Chittagong was included in the Samatat Kingdom and probably this Samatat Kingdom was surrounded by Brahmaputra river to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the south, Chittagong Hill Tract to the east and Padma river to the west (R.G. Basak, History of North Eastern India, Calcutta 1934, Page-203). Historian Dr. Ahmed Sarif in his book the History of Dhaka says that Arakan with Chittagong was ruled as a sovereign state by the kings Chandra dynasty from the 5th Century (1375 Bangla page 1701-179). Chittagong and Samatat was under the rule of Buddhist Kadga Kings in the 6th Century (Dr. Ahmed Sharif, History of Dhaka 1375 Bangla, Page-162) and Samatat was ruled by the Kings of Buddhist dynasty (Zilla Parisad the History of Comilla, 1984 , page-162). This was occupied by the Arakanese Kings in the first half of the 8th century and came under the rule of Pala Kings in the 2nd half of the century. Dr. Ahmed Hasan Dani says that Chittagong was under the rule of the King Dharmapal (770-810C.E, Indian Quarterly volume 16, 1936, page 232-236). In the 9th century the wider Chittagong, Noakhali and Camilla was under the rule of Harikel Kings. Bardhamanpur was the capital of Harikel Kingdom. A copper plate about the King Kantideva of Harikel was discovered at Barauttan village of Deang Hill under Anwara Upazilla to the south of Karnafully river.
The Chinese traveller Huen Tsang says abouth the location of Harikel Kingdom that this Kingdom was situated to the eight hundred miles away from Nalanda and thirty days journey from Srilanka (Indian Historical Quarterly volume 12, 1936, page 75). It is known from his description that this was the nearest kingdom of the sea coast. The copper plate of the King Kanti Dev found at Barauttan village of Deang Hill to Bay of Bengal gives us the idea that this Barauttan is changed form of Bardhamanpur (The Journal of the Ithihas Samiti 7,8, 1385-86, page-75) and was the capital of Kanti Deva. An incomplete copper plate of the King Kanti Deva of Harikel was discovered from an old temple of Bara Akhra of Nasirabad in the 9th century C.E. It is thought that Chittagong was under Harikel Kingdom. The inscribed writings were in Sanskrit of the 9th century as like as the writings of Pala Kings. But in one part there was the name of the king Kanti Deva who was the founder of the Harikel Kingdom.
The Chinese Traveller Itsing mentioned the location of Harikel Kingdom to the East of India. It is nown more from the description that the another Chinese traveller named Uhing starting journey by sea from Ceylone to the north-east appeared in the Harikel Kingdom which was to the East of India. But now the historian B.N. Mukherjee came to the decision on the basis of Chinese traveller’s discussion that it is to the coastal areas of Chittagong. Samatat consists of Harikel and of Comilla and Noakhali District stated by Ithsing (B.N. Mukherjee, The Original History of Harikela in Bangladesh Lalitkala vol. 1, No. 3, Journal of the Dhaka Musium 1975, page 115-119). According to Ramesh Channdra Mazumder the copperplate of Kanti Deva was inscribed at Bardamanpur the capital of Harikel in 850-50. Dr. Suniti Bhusan Kanungo opined that Bardhamanpur is the Bara Uthan village of Patiya Thana under the district of Chittagong. The Historian Dr. Nihar Ranjan Ray also mentioned Bardhanmanpur of Chittagong. So this was under the rule of the King Kanti Deva of Harikel in the 9th Century. Chittagong was under the rule of Chandra Kings of Pattikera in the first half of the 10th Century and in the 11th Century. Arkanese Kings were related to this Chandra Kings by marriage( J.A.S.B. volume-1, 1961, page-5 and page 262-273).
The Pandit Vihar of Chittagong was established under the Patronage of the King Dharmapala. The name of Pandit Vihar University spread in home and abroad as a centre of study. The Pandit Vihar was specially the centre of study of Mahayani Buddhism. It was the place from where the Mahayani Buddhism flourished in South-East Asia. Pandit vihar was also famous in the world in respect of Buddhist arts, Sculpture and archeological antiquities. It is known from the description of the Tibetian historian Lama Taranath about the glorious work of Pandit Vihar in his famous book ‘The History of Buddhism in India’(1608C.E.) He opined that there were many Hindu and Buddhist temples here. There was a great Buddhist monastery in Chittagong. After the destruction of Nalanda, Pandit Vihar was the centre of Buddhism. There would be debates on Philosophy between Hindu and Buddhist Scholars. This was the only centre of study where many students from different countries would come for higher study. The students would be satisfied to quence their thirst for knowledge to acquire knowledge from the renowned Scholars of this university. At this term Pandit Vihar was decorated with different books of different branches of Buddhism, residence for the Bhikkhus and the works of arts and sculpture which made Buddhism rich. This ancient glorious history and culture made Buddhism bright and famous. Above all as a great Sea Port of Bangladesh the short description of renowned Pandit Vihar is presented in this essay paper.
The present Chittagong previously known as Chaittyagram consisted of the locality which now lies in the South-East part of Bangladesh. This history gives us the evidence that it has an uneven geographical condition. This locality was surrounded by hills, sea and rivers. Now Chittagong division consists of 11 districts. There lies the Bay of Bengal to the West and South. Feni river and Tripura and Monipur province of India to the South-West and Present Myanmar to the South.
The Saint Martin island and Maheshkali island have enriched Chittagong. The port of Chittagong was welknown to the Portugese, Chinese, Tibetan, Arabian and Turkey traders as a centre of trade and commerce.
The Buddhists living in the South East of Bangladesh near to Burma are old tribe of Chittagong. In the 3rd Century B.C. the emperor Asoka sent Shon and Uttra the two scholars of Buddhism to Burma and Thailand to propagate the Buddha’s peace message. During the reign of emperor Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. the ancient Bengal was influenced by the light of Buddhism. From the history of Chittagong written by Purna Chandra Chowdhury it is known that the region in order to preach Buddhism in the first half of the 3rd Century (The History of Chittagong page-13). Abdul Karim Shahitya Visharad has written in his book ‘Islamabad’ that Buddhists are the old inhabitants of this country. They thought themselves Khatriya and belonged to the Royal family. So Buddha’s religion is the ancient religion of Chittagong.
From the middle of the 8th century C.E. with the rise of the Pala Kings Buddhism spread widely in ancient Bengal. During the long four hundred years Buddhism influenced much the Bengali Literature, culture and social environment of Bangla. But with the rise of Brahmanism and in the 10th Century at the Muslim conquest from the foreign countries Buddhism began to decline. But with indomitable living force of Buddhism still remains bright in Srilanka, the most countries of South-East Asia and to the north of the Countries of the Himalay mountain. The light of Buddhism is still shining at Chittagong the eastern area of India (Charulata Edition- Uttam Kumar Barua 2000, page-23). It is known from the history of Burma that the King Anwarata after taking the refuge of Buddha came to visit Chittagong. It is thought that Chittagong was the centre of Buddhism in the 11th century C.E. The inhabitants of Chittagong was the descendent of the original Indian Buddhists. Many of the religious chiefs of Tibet were the inhabitants of Chittagong specially the main source of the people wearing Redcap were from Chittagong. One of the writers of Charyapada the first book of Bengali Language Siddhipada the teacher of Tantra of the 8th century was the inhabitant of Chittagong. Pandit Vihar became the centre of Buddhist study in the 9th century C.E. During the time of travelling in India of Huen Tsang in the middle of the 7th century the whole of Chittagong was the place of Buddhism. According to him there were many stupas, temples and monasteries in Chittagong. Among them Pandit Vihar was famous. Later on it became the University which had international fame. After the destruction of Nalanda University it was one of the centres of Buddhist study.
Many reputed scholar monks would live in this Pandit Vihar. Many students from foreign countries would come here for learning on Buddhism. As it was rich with many world famous scholars it was named Pandit Vihar. Most of the Buddhist mystic songs (Charyagiti) which were the main source of Bengali language were written by most of the 84 Siddhacharyas residing in this Pandit Vihar University. Being educated from this university many scholars went to Tibet by crossing the insurmountable hills of Himalaya and to South-East Asian countries by crossing high waves and impassable sea for preaching
Many reputed Scholars like Dr. Md. Shahidullah, Dr. Suniti Kumar Chattarjee and Sukumar Sen opined that these Charyagities were the first source of Bengali Language. It is matter of glory for the Buddhists. Some books written in Tibetan Language give us the information about the Pandit Vihar at Chittagong and the writings of Siddhacharyas. When Sarat Chandra Roy Bahadur who went to Tibet remarked that he saw the name of Pandit Vihar in the Tibetan book (Bisawmaitree-Arun Bikash Barua, Chittagong, 1970, page-20-21). Being very glad at this information he decided to revive the past glory of Pandit Vihar. Returning from Tibet he appealed to the British Govt. for reviving the glory of Pandit Vihar. The British Govt. offered Sarat Chandra a portion of Land of Devpahar as a reward of his role in Tibet in favour of the government. But that land is now occupied by the Govt. and some selfish people (page-21) No other effort has yet been taken by the Govt. or Non-Govt. source in this matter. It is unfortunate that no attempt has been yet taken by the Buddhists personally or organisationally to materialize the decision of Sarat Chandra Roy. Though there is bright writing history of Pandit Vihar elaborately the glory of Chittagong in Bangladesh has been faded.
During the reign of Pala Kings for four hundred years the science, education, culture, literature, philosophy, arts and sculpture of Bengal rose to the higher position. Specially the countries of south-east Asia were influenced by the education, arts and sculpture of Bengal. The educational idea of Pandit Vihar is the bright example. The creator of golden age in Bengal Dharmapal the 2nd King of Pala period in the 8th century established 50 monasteries in his Kingdom. The Pandit Vihar is one of them. It was a big monastery like Nalanda, Sompur and Bikramsila. The historian Taranatha in his book ‘History of Buddhism’ remarked about the existence of Pandit Vihar in Chittagong and one of the greatest works of the King Dharmapal. But some scholars say that it was established by the King Chandra Dynasty of Pattikera. Under the patronage of Kings of Chandra dynasty in the 10th century C.E. the activity of Pandit Vihar University spread widely. It was the centre of Tantric Buddhism in the East Bengal. The detailed description of this is found in the books ‘Buddhism in India’ and ‘the seven Mystic Revealations’ written by the Tibetan Historian Taranath. Here Taranatha mentioned Chittagong as Chatigum, the Capital of Gopi Chandra. (1HQ, XV1, 8.219, 228/HB1, P.182/JAB, 1898, P23). The distinguished son of Chittagong Sarat Chandra Das a scholar in Tibetan Language remarked with some scholars that Pandit Vihar was established in 8th-9th century. Buddha statues and other Buddhist gods and goddesses were found through excavation in different places. It proves that Mahayani Tantric Buddhism was the centre of it. The Pala Kings made a strong foundation of Mahayani Buddhism.
It is known that the name of the Principal of Pandit Vihar was Tilapada or Prajnabhadra who was the inhabitant of Chakrasala at Patiya. The famous Buddhist Scholar of Magadh Naropa became the disciple of Prajnabhadra. The Buddhist scholars of India would come here to learn Buddhism and Philosophy. That is why it has been named Pandit Vihar. From the reference of Tibet it is known “In ancient time there were many Tirthikas (Hindu Temples) and Viharas (Buddhist monasteries) at Chatigram which was the head quarters of Ramma country a wellknown Buddhist centre. According to Buddhist traditions, the name of the city is derived from Chaityagram ‘the city of Buddhist Shrines’. The famous Pandit Vihara was probably situated in or near this city (JASB 1818, p. 24, Asiatic Researcher 1921-22, p 8286, 115).
It is known from the Tibetan source that books on Buddhism were learnt, written and translated in different monasteries. Generally monasteries were established in the East Bengal from 7th to 11th century C.E. The Chinese traveller Huen Tsang saw twenty monasteries in Pundrabardhan, thirty monasteries at Samatat, 10 at Tamralipti and 7 at Kajangal in the 7th centuries. Among them Nalanda and Vikramsila, Odantapuri in Bihar, Sompuri Vihar in middle Bangla, Jagaddal Mahavihar in North Bengal, were famous. At that time there were other monasteries in east Bengal. There were Vikrampuri Vihar near Dhaka, Kanakstup Vihar in Comilla and Pandit Vihar at Chittagong etc. (Karnafully Bahaman- Editor Saroj Ranjan Chowdhury, Cal-2008, page-31). From 8th to middle of the 12th century C.E. under the patronage of Pala, Chandra, Deva and Arakanese kings this Pandit Vihar rose to the highest position. Specially under the help and patronage of Pala Kings this glorious monateries of Bnagladesh received an international fame in the Buddhist world.
There are different opinions of the scholars about the site of Pandit Vihar. According to their different opinions Pandit Vihar was situated at the Rangmahal hill (the present hill of General Hospital), Chakrasala of Patiya, Chandranath Hill at Sitakunda, Deang Hill at Anwara, the nearest area of Chutikhan’s Dighi at Mirswarai (Jyotika edited by Bijoy Barua, ctg. College, 1991-92, page-13). Roy Bahadur Saratchandra Das remarked that Pandit Vihar was established at the Hill of General Hospital. In 1904 C.E. a Buddha statue was found during the time of excavation which was placed in the Chittagong Buddhist Temple for adoration (A History of Chittagong, page-105-6). On the other hand he thought that it might be also in Dev Pahar at Chittagong Hill. It’s mentionable that he received a portion of Devpahar Hill as gift of his contribution to British Govt. to rebuilt a monastery like Pandit Vihar. He donated it to the Chittagong Buddhist Association for this purpose. Most of the scholars say that the site of the Pandit Vihar was at Deang Hill at the west of Anwara to the south of the Karnafully. It is a sandy place. The north-east side of this Hill covered with green trees is in the area of Patiya Thana. There is a valley where a village named Barautthan was situated. Once upon a time there was Capital of the King Kanti Deva in this place. It was known as Deva gram also. One of the Part of Deang Hill at Bara Utthan area was called Biswamura. There was a house of the Arakanese King Bikram here. It was called Biswamura according to his name. By scavating this place Buddha statues in small size and brick built wall were discovered. Many years ago Abdul Haque Khan of the Khan family found a Buddha statue of 3 feet high. The Statue was made of black stone. The Scholars think that undoubtedly the site of Pandit Vihar University is in the Deang Hill.
Later on that famous Pandit Vihar was ruined in course of time. The world famous Pandit Vihar was situated in the area of Julda (Shahimapur) Jhewari and Bara Uthan village near Battali of West Patiya in Anwara Upazilla. But no archeological excavation was carried on in this place. The existence of two brick built walls were seen in 1977-90 C.E. But those are now in ruins. Now the Govt. Rudder office has been built there. 40 Acres of land have been protected for government office. Now it is said by the local people that the existance of hostorical Pandit Vihar was there. About two Kelometres east from the Pandit Vihar Hill Bardhamanpur or Bara Uthan area is situated. In the nearest area of Deang Hill at Jhewari village during British period more than fifty Buddha statues of different sizes were found and recent researcher Dr. Suniti Bhusan Kanungo gives reference of a Copper Plate of the King Kanti Deva that the existence Pandit Vihar lies underneath in the hill area.
It is said by the Tibetan Scholar Uddian about the different reference of this place of Chittagong that it is nothing but the area of Bara Utthan. Many Siddhacharyas (Professors) were engaged in teaching in this Pandit Vihar University where they are mentioned as invested in different Tibetan books. Later on the world reputed Buddhist Scholar Dr. Benimadhab Barua, Lawyer Umesh Chandra Mutsuddy, Scholar Dharmadhar Mahastavir and many other researchers tried to find out the detailed history of this Pandit Vihar. They remarked differently. Some say that Pandit Vihar University was in Rangmahal Pahar (now in General Hospital Hill) where a big Buddha statue with some physical remains was found during the time of excavation. Others say that it was in Chakrasala or in Deang Hill area. But most of the scholars remarked that Devagram or Deang Hill area the glorious memory of Purushottam Dev, Madhu Sudhan Dev, Basudev etc. the Kings of Deva dynasty now gives evidence of the existence of Pandit Vihar University. Though the side of this Vihar has not yet been identified exactly according to Bangladesh District Gazetteer it is known that the site of Pandit Vihar was at Deang Hill area near Bara Utthan village of Anwara Thana. (Bangladesh Gazetteer ctg. 1975 page-59) From the ancient source of History and tradition it is clearly said by most of the scholars and historians that the site of Pandit Vihar was at the Deang Hill Area near Bara Utthan of Anwara Thana. I also agree to their remark and believe that the existence of Pandit Vihar University will be discovered through archeological excavation at Deang Hill area which has been turned into destruction in course of time.
There was a regardful co-operation between the teachers and the students in the educational system. It is known from the Ith-sing’s description that the students would come to the teachers for learning in the morning and evening the students were to make all necessary arrangements for their teachers happy living. Even it was their duty to clean their bedroom. On the other hand the teachers had to take care of their sick students in their illness. For this reason the students would show their proper respect and deep scholarship to the teachers and the teachers also would deal with them with hearty love and affection. Teaching on eighteen subjects was given in Taxila, Nalanda Vikramshila and other universities. But Buddhism and Tantricism were taught in the university. After the great demise of Buddha (Mahaparinirbbana) especially Mahayani Buddhism based on Vajrajan, Shajjan, Kalachakrajan etc. was expanded in course of time.
Tilopada or Prajnabhadra In his Hindu family life: As his wife would lead her life by grinding sesame seeds he took the name of Tilopa After embracing Buddhism his name was changed into Prajnabhadra and afterwords he became the Principal of Pandit Vihar.
The main works of the scholars were to compose books and write the commentaries with hymn, praise, to describe the greatness of gods and goddesses for the worship of the followers of Tantric Buddhism. Coming from all places of India the different scholars would assembled here to discuss the philosophy and Buddhism. Because by virtue of their scholarship the name of this Vihar became Pandit Vihar.
The Principal of Pandit Vihar was Prajnabhadra (988-1033) Siddhacharya who was the teacher of the glorious son of Bengal Atisha Dipankarasree. He was the son of Brahmin of Jnana. He became the principal of this Vihar in the middle of the 10th century. He was the son of a Brahmin Chakrasala under Patiya Upazilla. Tilopa was his another name. After embraching Buddhism he was named Prajna Bhadra (Choudhury Abdul Haque the Essay paper on the History of Chittagong Katha mala publication Ctg. 1992 page-135) It was mentioned by a Tibetan author Lama Bun-Ton in his compiled book Tanjur the storebook of Tibetan knowledge that the birth place of Tilopa was in Uddian. He became the Shiddhacharya by practicing Tantra. The names of his written books in Sanskrit were Sree Shahaj Sambaradhisthan, Acinta Mahamudranama, Catta-Chaturopadesha Prasanna Paradip, Mohamudropadesh, Dohakosa and Saro dharmopadesh etc. The translations in Tibetan language of these books are found there (Karnafully Bahaman).
Eighteen Teachable Subjects: Sruti, Smriti, Sammuti, Samukhya, Yoga. Ethics, Baishesika, Music, archery, Puran, Medicine, History, the teaching of Chandra, ketu, Mantra, Sabda these eighteen subjects are called Shastras or knowledge of the Scriptures (Prajnabhadra Stavir Lokaniti, Rangoon 1932, page-4).
List of the names of Sidhacharyas:
18. Karnari Pa,
19. Thakdnaka/ Thagnapa,
31. Dingka Pa (Dhenkipa),
34. Kukkuri Pa,
52. Ghanta Pa,
53. Yogipa/ Yokipa,
54. Cheluk Pa,
60. Champaka Pa,
61. Vikshan Pa,
64. Chapari Pa,
65. Manibhadra/ Yogini Bahuri,
73. Kirapala/ Kilapada,
74. Sakar/ Sagara,
80. Kokali Pa,
84. Byalipa/ Byaripa (Courtesy Chattopadhyaya Alok, Stories of 84 Siddhas, Papyrus Prakashani, Calcutta-1988, editor- Saroj Ranjan Chy. Cal-2004, p-31).
At that time Bengali Language and literature was written and published at first in this Pandit Vihar. The Scholars consented unitedly that Pandit Vihar is the place of Source of Bengali Language. The first book of Bengali Language (Buddhist Mystic songs or Charyapada) was written in this Pandit Vihar (Asoka Barua- Subrata Barua, Bangla Academy Dhaka, 1990 page-112). Narapada was great disciple of Prajnabhadra. He translated the book Saradarmopadesh in Pali written by his teacher. He also wrote and translated many books. Even he helped others to translate the books. Some say that he was Naropa or Naropada or Sakyabhadra who was the son of Sakyabarma of Eastern India. Some other say that he was the son of a Brahmin of Kashmir. When Narapada became Siddhacharya his name had been changed as Yosobhadra and Jnanasiddhi. In a commentary book Bajra Padasar Sanggraha Panjika written by him the names of Naropada and Yasbhadra are seen. Mentioning Yasobhadra clearly in that book it is said that he was the inhabitant of Kashmir (Panchajannya, Autumn volumn 134 B.E, page- 53.)The memories of other mentionable Siddhacharyas who were related to Pandit Vihar were Luipada Anangabajra Kanhabodhi, Jnanabajra, Buddha Jnanapada Amoghanath and Dharmasri Maitra etc.
The Scholars think that the writers of Buddhist Mystic songs Chatilyapada and some writers were Bengalees by birth and belonged to Chittagong. The Scholar Banaratna of Chittagong with others went to Tibet for propagating Buddhism in Tibet. Chandra Jyoti a Buddhist monk became famous for his Scholarship in the 15th Century. Concerning Bengali language some famous Chittagonian Buddhists had much contribution. Sitting in this Pandit Vihar at the leisure time of their teaching, meditation and learning they would write Buddhist Mystic songs or Charyapadas which are recognised by all as the first source of Bengali Language. When a revolution in Kashmir took place Sakyasribhadra a famous Buddhist Scholar of that place came to Vikramsila University of East India. But in course of time when revolution and invasion spread widely Sakysribhadra took shelter in Pandit Vihara. Then Pandit Vihar became famous as a University. When severity of political unrest began to reduce (calm down) Sakya Sri Bhadra returned to Kashmir via Tibet and Nepal. The manuscript of Charyapada was discovered from Nepal and Tibetan Royal Court by tireless efforts of Mahamohopaddya Hara Prasad Sastri, Royal Embassador Sarat Chandra Das, Dr. Suniti Kumar Chaterjee, the scholar Rahul Sankrityayan, Dr. Shahidullah. The Charyapada was known as Charyaeharya Vinischaya.
These mystic songs were sung through different musical modes with drum, clapping instrument, monochord, violin and stringed musical instrument. These mystic songs are the first morning music tune of the Bengali language. The noted allegorical examples as the thatched cottage on high hills, Dombi, the river with strong current, forest dwellers hunters, fisherman, boat, bridge, humming place are seen in the description of the mystic songs. These are the reflection of environmental natural life of Chittagong surrounded by forest, hill, river and sea. So Chittagong being the rearing place of Charyapada Pandit Vihar is not only the glory of Chittagong but also important for the Bengali Speaking People.
The places for Buddhist study were built in old monasteries. The speciality of Buddhist study is democratic education. After Buddha age the eighteen subjects for learning were introduced in the Buddhist monasteries. Besides religion and Philosophy the monasteries are the centre of deliberation of literature, sculpture, Arts and Culture. Meditation, Sorcery, Grammar, Astrology, Chemistry, Medicine, Metallurgy and practical learning. Other different subjects were taught in these monasteries. The Pandit Vihar University was not only the centre of Tantric Buddhist study but also the home of lyric poems. Many of Buddhist mystic songs and Charyapada (Charyacharya Binischoy) the first book in Bengal Language were written in this Pandit Vihar. The religious teaching that was given by the teachers was not the true Buddhism. After the great demise of Buddha the Mahayana Buddhism was introduced by some of his disciples. On the basis of Mahayana Buddhism Bajrajan, Sahajjan, Kalachakrajan etc. the changed form as the branches of it were created (Tantric Buddhism). Prajnabhadra or Tilopa the world reputed Scholar wrote many books on Tantric Buddhism in this monastery. It was the main work of both the teachers and students to write books on different gods and goddesses with commentaries, Mantras, praising songs, their picture drawing for the worship. Prajnabhaadra wrote some valuable books in Sanskrit. These were mentioned before. The Mahayana changed forms were developed in Northern India and in Bangladesh from 8th to 12th century. The Tantric practice went on in course of time. At that time beside the original form of Buddhism preference was given for practicing Tantric form of Buddhism in the Indian Universities. Under the patronage of Pala Kings these changed forms of Buddhism were preached in Cambodia, Tibet, Nepal, Burma etc. At that time the Siddhacharyas were also known as Nath Master. Many Nath Masters were born here. Tantric Buddhism was developed with the joint effort of Masters and the disciples. As a result Buddhist Mystic songs were written. The world reputed scholars being united in this Pandit Vihar would teach the students and discuss on Philosophy. There was no objection of attendance of the scholars of other religion. They would also exchange their opinion on Philosophy and the other subjects with the Buddhist scholars. The students would study there without any cost. They were to appear at the examination to get admission in the university. There were arrangements for awarding prizes to the best students. The students would take part in debating and discussion on Philosophy and other subjects. At this their display of learning would be proved fruitful (At present the debating competition is held in different colleges, universities, Radio and Televisions where the students are awarded). This system also was introduced in the university. The teachers of Pandit Vihar were not only engaged in teaching the students but also practiced meditation for spiritual development. These scholars would devote themselves in propagating the message of Buddha’s love and peace. Basically Pandit Vihar was the centre of Buddhism and Culture based on Tantricism. Thousands of students including monks would receive education there.
Architectural findings in Jhewari
Jhewari the village of Anwara Upazilla is situated in hilly area of the southern bank of the Karnafully of Chittagong. It has been proved through the discovery of some archeological findings that once it was a place of civilization in the world. In 1927 many valuable archeological findings of stone and bronze metal with Buddha statues of golden colour were discovered there. Since then this village has been famous for ancient Buddhist civilization. This village has been ignored inspite of discovery of many bronze statues. Some old archeological remains also are seen here (Zakaria Abdul Kalam Mohammed the archeological remains of Bangladesh, Divya Prakash, Dhaka 2010, Page. 668). The Charyas are collected from Nepal and Tibet by tireless efforts of the scholars namely Harapasad Sastri, Dr. Suniti Kumar Chaterjee. Dr. Sahahidulah, Rahul Sankrityayan and Sarat Chandra Das. The Charyapadas are sung through mode of music by playing on tomtoms and cymballs, violin, one stringed and two stringed musical instruments. The reference given by Abdul Haque Chowdhury is hereby mentionable. On February of 1927 the Buddha statues made of Bronze were discovered at the time of digging for making a house of Sahar Ali Bali at Jhewari which is five miles away from Bara Uthan village under Anwara Upazilla. Hearing news from the people Dharmavanghsa Mahathera the then Professor of Pali in Chittagong College went to Sahar Ali Bali with Dipankar one of his students and requested him to offer those Buddha statues for the preservation in the Chittagong Buddhist Monastery. But Sahar Ali Bali refused to offer those statues. Then Prof. Dharmavangsa Mahathera returning to the town published the news of discovering those Buddha statues. This news drew the attention of the Superintendent of the archeological Department. He requested the collector of Chittagong to procure those archeological findings from the Shar Ali Bali according to archeological law. He rescued those statues from Sahar Ali Bali and kept in the treasury and later on those were sent to archeological department, in Calcutta Museum. Five in Asutosh Museum and two in the Victoria Allbert Museum were kept . The statues were built from 8th to 10th century. Considering the sculptural technique of the statues it is said that there is a close relation between the statues of Jhewari and the statues of Nalanda but the statues of Jhewari express their own regional sculptural technique (Asok K. Battacharya, Jhewari Bronze Buddhas- A study in history and style, Indian Museum, Calcutta 1989 Page-3). The Specialist on statues Asok Battacharya remarked that Buddha statues built in Jhewari being the Mahayana and Tantrayana style are classified into six divisions. For example 1. The seated Buddha statue by touching the land with right hand 2. Stannding Buddha statue by giving assurance of safety 3. Buddha statue with Maitraya and Lokeswar Buddha statue 4. Padma Pani 5. Lokeswar, Manjusri, Bashudhara, Chunda statue 6. stupa with umbrella and the replica of Mahabodhi Temple. Once Chittagong was the place of communication for Buddhist study between India and South East Asia. These statues were built in 9th and 10th Century C.E. (Asok K. Battacharya, Jhewari, Desh- 1999, 58 Years of November, 2nd Publication).
These Buddha statues are considered as the material source of ancient history and tradition of Chittagong. The two important books were written on the basis of these Buddha statues (Bronze from Bangladesh by Debamitra 1982 and Jhewari Bronze Buddhas- Astudy in History and style by Asok K. Battacharya, 1989) So it is thought that during the reign of Kanti Deva of Harikel these Buddha statues were built when Bardhamanpur the end of Bara Uthan was his capital. After the end of Buddhist rule the local Buddhists protected these statues under the ground of a Buddhist living house to save them from political destruction and plundering. Later on perhaps this family embraced Islam or this place was handed over or occupied by a Muslim . Still Buddha statues of different kinds are found by digging the soil of remains of Bishop Kings house at Bishwa Mura in Digging Hill of Bara Uthan. (Abdul Haque Chowdhury- The History of Chittagong 1st Part 1982, page-109).
Buddha statues built with 66 metals (Made of brass, Silvar and Bronze etc.) According to the remark of Asok Battacharya the specialist on statues. The statues were built in Mahayani and Tantric idea Buddha in ground touching gesture, Padmapani Lokeswar, Manjuri, Basudhara, Cunda statue, Stupa with canopy, the replica of Mahabodhi Temple were built in the 9th century.
Beside the above Buddha statues the other Buddha statues and other remains, brick built wall were discovered in different times in the area close to Deang Hill which is included in the village. The copper plate of the King Kanti Deba of Harikel Kingdom in the 9th century C.E. was discovered in Bara Uthan village which is situated in the vally of Deang Hill and by digging most of the places of that area Buddha statues and the broad brick built wall were discovered measuring 12*12*3 inches (Prabandha Bichitra, History and Literature page- 89) Now the existence of the King Kanti Dev which is known as Deor Dighi, Maghbhite Maghtank (Magpukur) large tank of Magh King (Magh Rajar Dighi) the large tank of Ram Chandra (Ramchandra Dighi).The metal sculptures discovered at Jhewari were the symbols of popular Mahayani Buddhism of the 7th to 11th century C.E. Still the various archeological materials of the Buddhist culture are being discovered in different places including Deang Hill areas of Anwara Upazilla. But the sculptures of Jhewari are the surprising symbol of Local Buddhist Art and those played an important role in Bangladesh and in the south East Asian Buddhist countries as a medium of communication of flourishing Buddhist Art. This archeological discovery has placed Anwara of Chittagong in special dignity in the field of old arts and sculptures in the developed world including this subcontinent. In 1983 C.E. some Buddha statues and old remains have been discovered in Khirpara village of Bara Uthan. It is mentionable that the Chittagong area was known as Harikel in the 7th-8th century and it is admitted by the scholars that Harikel was the old centre of Buddhist arts and sculpture. Among them the pleasing and the artistic specialty of culture of Jhewari under Anwara Upazilla attracted the people of world.
The Kings of Chandra dynasty also were Buddhists. In 1229 the Deva Kings of Chandra Dynasty ruled the country independently. Purusuttam Dev, Madhusudan Dev. and Damodar Dev ruled respectively. In 1223 Damodar Dev donated land to a Brahmin. Ratnafa the King of Tripura being his descendent occupied Chittagong in 1297 C.E. Devagram the capital of these Deva Kings was known as Deang and the famous Pandit Vihar was established in this Devagram (Subrata Barua Bouddha Sanskritir Kramabikash, Chittagong, Asok Barua, Bangla Academy, Dhaka-1990, Page-116). The Buddha statues discovered at Jhewari made it clear to the Historians about the existence of Pandit Vihar. According to the source of these statues undoubtedly the Historians think that Pandit Vihar was situated in the Deang Hill.
Description of the then Buddha statues
There is the short description of the Buddha statues found at Pandit Vihar the place of acquiring knowledge including Jhewari and other places of Chittagong. Among them some valuable archeological findings and Buddha statues were brought to Calcutta. Bombay and Dhaka Museum. The descriptions of some of the Buddha statues are given below:
- 1. The Buddha statue on Bajrasan touching land by right hand in a symbol on Lotus seated condition (a particular posture in religious meditation) The Bajra on a seat the height is seven and half inches, the dharma hetu Prababha is inscribed infront of the footstool of 11th and 12th century C.E. This Buddha statue from a Darga Kaokhali west Raozan was transferred to Thegarpuni village of Patiya.
- 2. The Buddha staue on Bajrasan symbolizing land touching by right hand is sitting on a lotus seat. There is Bajra on the seat, the height is Seven and half inches- Deya Dharmoyang is inscribed in front of footstool in the 11th century C.E.
- 3. The Buddha statue in a symbol by touching land with right hand is on Lotus seated condition, its height is four and half inches.
- 4. The Buddha statue on Bajrasan symbolizing land touching by right hand is sitting on a Lotus seated
condition. Its height is 3 inches and a half.
- 5. The Buddha statue in a symbol by touching land with right hand is sitting in a Lotus seated condition. Its height is 9 inches.
- 6. The Buddha statue on Bajrasan in a symbol is seated in a Lotus. Its height is 8 inches.
- 7. The Buddha statue is in a Lotus seated condition. Its hight is 3 inches.
- 8. The standing Buddha statue is 6 inches high. From the countenance of these eight Buddha statues it is understood that these were brought to Chittagong from Burma or Arakan. The inscriptions in impure Sanskrit Language below the first , second and fourth statue are seen. These statues may be built both by Hinayana and Mahayana Sect. Here the inscription is similar to the inscription found in the statue of Saranath. No inscription is seen in the statues discovered before the Gupta period.
- 9. Sitting on a pleasing seat the statue of Padmapani Bodhisatta, Avalokiteswar the right leg is swinging below, golden lotus in left hand the height is 6 inches. The meditative Amitabha Buddha in small size is seen on its coronet, Deyadarmodayang etc. is inscribed in front its footstool. It was found in Tekota village of Patiya Upazilla. He was the prominent god of Mahayani Sect. The theory of this god is that he does not want to be Buddha without leading all to the path of Nibbana.
- 10. The statue of Bodhisattva Manjusri is sitting in a Lotus seat, the height is 8 inches and a half. A golden Lotus in left hand the meditative statue of Akshovya Buddha of small size in ground touching symbol is seen. On its coronet “Ohang Deya Dharmoyang etc.” is inscribed in front of the footstools in the 11th century C.E. It was found in the north Joara Village under Patiya Upazilla. In the Hinayana doctrine Ananda occupied the place of knowledge. In the same way Bodhisatta Manjusri occupied the place of godess of knowledge in the Mahayani doctrine.
- 11. The statue of Jambal is the owner of riches. Its height is 4 inches and a half. Lemon is in his right hand and mangoes in the right hand, the bally of the god is big, seven pots are full of gems. It was found in the village Bhandergaon similar with the statue of Jambol found in Nepal and Vikrampur.
- 12. Tara statue is in a pleasing seat. Its height is 5 inches land a Lotus in left hand. It was found in Mireswarai Thana.
The ruined ancient works of Pandit Vihar : The 66 Buddha statues were discovered underground at the time of building his new house by Safar Ali Bali of Jhewari village in the month of February, 1927 C.E. Beside this ruins a Buddhist temple, a stupa and the remains of 3 Buddha statues were found. So many symbols of Buddhism were not discovered anywhere at a time in Bangladesh. Among them 33 statues are in the symbols of ground touching by right hand (height 15*3/4 from 2*1/4 inches) Some are in Abhoy Mudra (Assurance of safety symbols) in standing position and some are seated in meditating symbol. The other statues are Buddha statues in Bajrasan, the statues of Bodhisatta Maitreya, Lokeshawar and Manjusree, two statues of Buddhist gods of wealth and the rest are the statues of gods and goddesses. Among the above 66 statues 59 are in Indian Museum, 5 are in the Calcutta Museum one in the Museum of Prince of Wales of Bombay, the existence of one is unknown. These statues were built from 8th to 10th centuries. Considering the building technique of the statues of Nalanda and Jhewari it is said that there is close similarity between the statues and revealed the regional building technique (Battacharya Asok K. /Jhewari Bronze Buddhas A study in History and style, Indian Museum, Calcutta-1989) From the Buddhist statues it is also proved that the Mahayani Buddhism flourished from 7th to the 11th century and sometimes these statues are similar to the Bronze Buddha statues of Burma. So it is proved that there was a close relation between Chittagong and Burma. The average height of statues was about 10 inches and breath was 5 inches. The expert in archeology Dr. Debha Mitra in his book ‘the Bronzes form Bangladesh’ considering the building technique , place of discovery and other related affairs gave his opinion about Buddha statues of Jhewari “As excavation or even a proper exploration has not been conducted at Jhewari it could not be determined if the images belonged to a Buddhist establishment at Jheari itself and were cast here or were collected and concealed here on the eve of a calamity or with a certain motive. In any case it is apparent that most of these material images were cast within this district itself in view of the fact that a group of images of Buddha (some of which are fairly large in dimensions) present a distinctive art form and style; certain features of this group are also present in some other groups of images from this hoard. It is also not unlikely that the leading centre of the metal casting was near the Chittagong town where at flourished according to Tibetan texts an important Buddhist establishment called Pandit Vihara. It is also likely that existed more than metal casting worship within this district (Mitra, Debala / Bronzees from Bangladesh, Agam Kala Prakasan, Delhi, 1982, P. 12).
The statues described above prove that the Buddhism was strong at Chittagong about eight or nine hundred years ago. The Mahayani Buddhism has been diverted from its original form which gives the ideas about later form in the following way.
- 1. The worship to the Sri Sri Mogadeshwari among the Buddhists and Hindus is the example of Mahayani Buddhism but this is not introduced in Hinayani Buddhism.
- 2. Many Buddhists of Chittagong would adore the goddess Saraswati. In the Mahayani Buddhism. Pajna Paramita the goddess of learning is being worshiped from the century before.
- 3. The Buddhists of Chittagong still utter the name of the gods and goddesses as Fara, Tara, Sankha of Mahayana at the time of sleeping, and dangerous journy which has basically come from Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. (Source from Panchajannya, Editor-Ambika Charan Das, Calcutta, Saradia Sankhya 1346, Page 53-54)
After the destruction of Nalanda University caused by Turkey invadors Pandit Vihar became the place of shelter of the Eastern Buddhist Scholars. But it is difficult to find out the real cause of the destruction of Pandit Vihar University. In 1666 Northern Chittagong came under the rule of Moghal and the Pandit Vihar was destructed by the Shelling during the time of battle or by cyclone or bad weather gradually it has been turned into pile of ruins. Though there were changes in the political condition the Southern Chittagong was under the rule of Arakanese Kings upto 1756. Thinking over the previous political invasion done in the Nalanda University the Scholar Siddhacharyas of Pandit Vihar University fled away to Burma, Nepal and Tibet with their valuable scripts and books. It is known from the history that the glory of Pandit Vihar became gloomy with the victory of Pathan. Probably the destruction was caused by the foreign rulers in the Nalanda, Odantapuri. Vikramshila, Sompur, Jagaddal and Kanakstupa Vihar beginning from the 13th Century to the middle of the 17th Century when the existence of Pandit Vihar also was lost. It has historical evidence that this Pandit Vihar University destroyed by the attack of Umed Khan. Since then the Buddhist influence began to fade. Historians say that as a result of Muslim occupation the condition of the Tantric Buddhism began to reduce and existence of Pandit Vihar was lost (The history of Chittagong page-36) Prof. Shilachar Shastri wrote in one of his essay papers that at that time it brought a dark age to the Buddhists of Chittagong. In that dark age of Chittagong the Buddhists were tortured, neglected and harassed in religious functions, state rights and social life. They had no good relations with the state, had no freedom of speech. Moreover they were deprived of learning education and were deviated from the right path. They forgot that they were the successors of world famous nations; they forgot their past glorious history, their contribution to Philosophy, literature and arts and sculpture, science and knowledge. Moreover they forgot the glory of Taxila, Mrigadava the places of religious value, the fame of Nalanda, Odantapuri, Kankastupa Vihar of Comilla, Vikrampuri Vihar of Shalvan Vihar of Maynamoti, Jagaddal Vihar of Barendra and Pandit Vihar of Chittagong and they were the son of a glorious nation who played a great role in flourishing new civilization in the world (Biswa Maitri Editor- Arun Bikash Barua ctg. 1380 Page-22) Many scholars of Pandit Vihar carried on reasearch work on Tantric Buddhism for hundred years. Many Scholars wrote many books. There was a rich library. All books were burnt like Nalanda University. No books of Buddhist doctrine was not found. So the scholars were scattered. The major part of the Buddhists embraced the state religion (Buddha Dharma o Dharsan- Pandit Dharmadhar Mahastavir, Calcutta 1974, page- 14). Though the original Pandit Vihar was destroyed by the invadors the Buddhist Siddhacharyas or monks established another Pandit Vihar as before at Chakrasala. They carried on research work on Buddhism with new inspiration.
The historian Ramesh Chandra Mazumder remarked that when the Buddhist monks and scholars were driven out from their last shelter place of Magadh and Bengal located to the North-East of India by the attack of Turkish Muslims at the end of the 12th century they went to Tibet and Nepal for their self protection. The propagation of Buddhism depends on the dedication of the monks. As The Buddhist monks were driven out from this country the brightness of Buddhism began to dim from this region (The History of Bengal Vol. 1 Ancient age, page 163).
It is a matter of surprise that 66 Buddha statues found at Jhewari was covered under great black stone. The weight of the stone was above 20 ton. It was stone of big size which was like the back of a tortoise. The round size of the stone was 146 feet and the height is one and half feet.
According to the historical statement of the facts this stone of big size reminds us the architecture of Ajanta. At present the people of this area have covered the stone with the soil (Jamal Uddin Bouddha Sabhyatar Fasal, Pandit Vihar Bishwa Viddyaloy O Charyapad. Editor Sukumar Barua Bishwamaitri 3rd year 1st vol. Buddha Purnima, publication 2010 page-23-24). Now it is the same position. At present a family is living by building bamboo house on this stone. There was an old sky scraping Buddhist Temple at Paraikora village which was nine kilometer east from Deang Hill. Being the 100 feet round diametter the height of this temple was alone 200 feet. There was south facing entrance way of this temple with brick built broad wall of 6 feet. By testing the building technics and the used brick in the temple some say that it was the work of 9th century and some say that it was built in the 13th century. Many works of Teracotta in the old art technique are seen in the walls of both inside and outside wall. (Jamal Uddin Bouddha Sabhyater Fasal Pandit Vihar Biswa vidyalay O Charyapad- Editor Simul Barua, Anoma Rajata Jayanti Smarak Ctg. 2008 page- 249-250). This temple is still seen as the work of Buddhist civilization in this region but want of care and protection it is gradually destroying. According to the historians the changed names of this place were Mahadebpur, Devagram, Deang or Devang which are related to the names of the Kings of Deva dynasty who ruled Chittagong for many years. Because of this archeological evidence the scholars and archeologists remark that Pandit Vihar was situated at Jhewari and Deang Hill. So it is not possible to take a true decision until archeological excavation is not done.
I do not know how far the Museum and Archeogical department of Bangladesh government will pay attention to it. About the rescue and protection of these archeological affairs Dr. Samsul Hossain ex. curator of Chittagong University said though it is sorrowful but true that after so many archeological discoveries no archeologist has come forward to visit this archeological place (Jhewari) (Hossain Samsul the Purakirti of Chittagong SangrakKhaner Samashya (Seminar article) Chittagong nagar Jadughar Parisad, Chittagong 1995, page-7)
The scholar Haraprasad Sastri once regretted “Firstly something is not believed; later on it has to accept if one takes it heart the eyesight is broadened and many mysteries of Bangla is known. Many things known from the general history of the Buddhists is not properly known. Even the bright names and remarkable history of the Buddhists is found a little. In course of time all the memories of the Buddhists are lost between 1500 to 1600 centuries. Time is omnivorous. All the worldly substance in the great works of time is lost but few Buddhists of Chattal are protecting themselves with their past traditions. But the bad time has faded their glory. However the result may be if the existence of the Pandit Vihar is discovered through archeological excavation and the origin of Bengali Language will be opened and will be added a new chapter in the history.
During the time of Buddha and later on because of the generosity and greatness of the distinguished Kings, nobles and rich men of India and Bengal innumerable monastries or Sangharams, temples were established in order to give a new way of Buddhist Culture, civilization, religion and history. At that time those played an important role as the centres of acquiring knowledge of different subjects. The Buddhist Kings with great Zeal patronized these universities. We get a clear conception of this from the history. Though the educational institutions, the centres of Buddhist Philosophy and culture and the works of Buddhist arts and architecture were destroyed the glorious history and tradition of Buddhist civilization could not uproot fully. The history remains unchanged. That old history and tradition still inspire the conscious people. It is necessary to recover that history and tradition for the interest of their own sincere co-operation from the historians, scholars, national and international government and non- government organisations is achieved the extinguished old Buddhism, its culture, art and architecture specially through recovery of previous bright educational prospects.
I believe that the present young people being inspired at this will be able to set up an example. If there remains combined efforts we also can reproduce new institutions like Taxila, Nalanda, Vikrammshila and Pandit Vihar for the welfare of the mankind. The history and tradition of Chittagong will be bright. The scholars will get new truth and knowledge. The real glorious truth will come out and they will be new makers and their work will remain unforgettable. The history will be its real direction. Then there will be no scope to pervert history. The real history gives preference to real truth. The real truth gives birth to real history. The real historical truth is not written when the history is perverted and false by one’s personal will and interest. The writers of false and perverted history are responsible for it. Now it is the time to write about the previous rich and glorious history rightly at this.
I believe that the present young people will be curious to create new things and will be attentive to carry on broader research work. Then Human society will be able to learn moral learning, will enrich their learning and will establish a good society and will set up a new environment of peace. At this the old history and tradition will be preserved. The people will get the opportunity to think freely and to work freely which will lead them to earn humanity. This will be the ultimate victory of humanism. There is a proverb “ Truth shall prevail in the long run.”
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