Psychotherapeutic Value of Theravada Buddhism on Six Temperament Traits (Carita) by Swe Swe Mon
Psychotherapeutic Value of Theravada Buddhism on Six Temperament Traits (Carita)
Swe Swe Mon
For engaging in different kinds of emotions, mental states, behaviors, and thinking patterns which are mainly influenced by temperament traits, beings are distinct from one another. On that account, we may face diversity of beings with unequal personality and character in our communication life. Thus, it is necessary to know about their personality, character, behaviors and ways of thinking. From the Buddhist perspective, to meet with the need of it, there are many sources in Tipaṭaka explained about the characteristics of Man (Manussa). Betwixt and between them, six temperaments are preached by the Buddha especially in case of choosing appropriate meditation subjects. Six temperament traits are categorized strikingly based on the types of mind (Citta) and mental factors (Cetasika) with reference to postures, actions, eating patterns, modes of seeing and with their various mental states. Hence, it will be beneficial, useful and interesting to study about six temperaments from the Buddhist social point of view as a tool for better social communication life with less of conflicts, not merely for meditation. The main objective of this research is to explore the way to perfect social communication by understanding different temperaments and to delineate the psychopathology to problematic and psychiatric disorders for bad temperaments in the light of Buddhist doctrines. The Visuddhimagga, Patisambhidamagga, Vibhaṅga and Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha are aimed as primary sources for this research work.
Unlike most contemporary theories of personality, which are predominantly Western, and less than a century old, a Buddhist theory of temperament, outlined in the Visuddhimagga, a 5th century commentary on the early teachings of Theravada Buddhist doctrine, offers a non-western approach. Yet, having no knowledge of Pāḷ i, it is truly difficult to get the right meanings of the Buddha’s teaching in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism for the Tipiṭaka and commentaries are written only in Pāḷ i language. Without knowing the right meanings of words in the Pāḷ i scriptures that one wants to study, one cannot lead to the right understanding. With this reason, the first chapter will analyze the essential Pāḷ i words used in this research by an etymological method (nirutti).
In second chapter, the psychotherapeutic value of Theravada Buddhism on each of the six temperament traits will be studied in details, mainly to explore the new way to better communication in society. Categories of temperament, causes of temperament and behavior phenomena related to temperaments are stressed in that chapter. The last chapter will emphasize the remedy to delineate the psychopathology to problematic and psychiatric disorders for bad temperaments.
1. Etymological study of Carita
The teachings of the Buddha are meaningful (sattha), deep (gambhīra), difficult to understand (duddasa), not just a theory (atakkāvacara) and known by the wise (paṇditavedanīya). Therefore, study of the Pāḷ i words in etymological and philological ways plays essential role to get what the Buddha really wanted to teach. Herein, the essential Pāḷ i words in this research “carita”, “rāga”, “lobha”, “dosa”, “moha”, “saddhā”, “buddhi”, “paññ a” and “vitakka”, will be discussed.
The term “carita” is the combination of the root car + suffix ta. According to commentators, the term “carita” is given as behavior, temperament, the performing of charity, etc., wholesome or unwholesome action which has been down in the past, the arising of body, speech and mind. Even thought, it has many meanings, herein, it takes as temperament, nature or character of a person. It is used along with “rāga”, “dosa”, “moha”, “saddhā”, “buddhi” and “vitakka”, in this research such as ragacarita, dosacarita.
In some places of Pāḷ i scriptures, the word “cariya” can also be found. In the Paramattha Dipanī, the Ledi Sayadaw defined cariya as acting, behavior, practice, habit, familiarity, temperament. In the Visuddhimagga, both usages of “carita” and “cariya” are found. On that account, carita and cariya are regarded of using for the coincidence of meaning. Further, the Visuddhimagga express that temperament (carita) has the same meaning with personal nature (pakati), idiosyncrasy (ussanna).
In the Visuddhimagga, six temperaments are mentioned as follow in the section of choosing meditation subjects; 1.Rāga carita (greedy temperament), 2.Dosa carita (hating temperament), 3.Moha carita (deluded temperament), 4. Saddhā carita (faithful temperament), 5. Buddhi carita (intelligent temperament), and 6. Vitakka carita (speculative temperament). They are divided into three unwholesome and three wholesome types. The text suggests that the unwholesome and wholesome types “parallel” each other such as greedy and faithful, hating and intelligent, deluded and speculative temperament.
In the term “rāgacarita”, the word “rāga” is the combination of the root ranj  and the conjugation ṇa and it means dyeing according to “rañjanaṁ rāgo” and according to “rañjanti etenāti rāgo”, it means they dye which that, so it is called “raga”.  It is used as synonym of “lobha”. Lobha which means attachment, lust or greed is one of the unwholesome mental factors (akusala cetasika) and it derives from the verb “labbhati, to clang/to attach”. According to the Abhidhamma, it has the characteristic of grasping an object, like a stick lime. Its function is sticking like a piece of flesh thrown into a hot pan. It manifests not to give up like a taint of dyeing lampblack and its proximate cause is viewing things that lead to bondage as enjoyment. Moreover, it takes away being to the state of misery, as a river of swift current carries any object fallen into it to the great ocean.
The word “dosa” used in the term “dosacarita” is the combination of the root dus  and the conjugation ṇa. It has the sense of anger, ill-will, intention, wickedness, corruption, malice and hatred.  Besides, it is included in the group of unwholesome mental factor. It has the savageness like a provoked snake. Its function is to spread like a drop of poison or its function is cause to burn up its own support like a forest fire. It is manifested as persecuting like an enemy who has a chance. Its proximate cause is the ground of vexation. It should be regarded as being like stale urine mixed with poison.
According to the Sanskrit root dvis, it means to hate, show hatred against, be hostile, to be a rival.  The term dosacarita refers to a person who had personal nature of hatred or the one who takes object with anger, according to Mahāniddesa commentary (Dussanavasena ārammaṇe caraṇaṁ etassa atthīti dosacarito.) 
The word “moha”, in the “mohacarita” is derived from the root muh and it means stupidity, dullness of mind, soul, delusion, bewilderment, infatuation. It is one of the three roots of evil and is common to all immoral types of consciousness. It has the characteristic of blindness or opposition to knowledge. It has the function of non-delusion, or the function of covering the intrinsic nature of all phenomena. It manifests the absence of right view or blindness. Its proximate cause is unwise attention.
The compound word “mohacarita” can be defined as a person who has personal nature of delusion as well as the one who takes object with delusion (myhanavasena ārammaṇe caraṇaṁ etassa atthīti mohacarito). 
The word “saddha” used in the term “saddhacarita” i s the combination of prefix saṁ and the root dhā. It carries the meaning of “faith” in general. According to Pāḷ i scriptures, it represents the well-established confidence in the Buddha, Dhamma and Saṅgha which is based on knowledge not on blind faith. It is the first one of beautiful mental factors (sobhana cetasika). It has the characteristic of clarity (sampasādana) of its mental associates because it purifies the mind of its stains. Dhammasaṅganī explains it as follows:
The term “saddhacarita” can be defined as as a person who has personal nature of delusion as well as the one who takes object with faith (saddhahanavasena ārammaṇe caraṇaṁ etassa atthīti saddhācarito).
“Buddhi” used in the term “buddhicarita” is derived from the well know root of budh. Herein, it is used in the sense of “paññ a”. Paññ a is used as intelligence, wisdom, insight, knowledge. Moreover, in Abhidhamma, it is synonym of the words ñā na and amoha. It is the combination of the prefix pa and root ña. It has the characteristic of understanding as it really or irresistible understanding as it overcomes ignorance. In the strictest sense of it, it is seeing things in the light of impermanence (anicca), impermanence (dukkha) and non-soul (anatta).
The word “vitakka” is the combination of prefix vi and the root takk . It has been defined into various ways in Suttanta and Abhidhamma. According to Dhammasangani, vitakka means the discrimination, the application of the disposing, the fixing, the focusing, the superposing of the mind, right disposing. It has the chief characteristic of lifting of the concomitants to the object (abhiniropaṇa). It is also one of the Jhāna factors. It is associated with both wholesome and unwholesome consciousness. Thus, it has three groups of vitakka in each wholesome and unwholesome.
Yet, it is used entirely in a different sense when connected with temperament (carita). The term “vitakkacarita” refers to a person who has personal nature of intelligent as well as the one who takes object with intelligent (vitakkanavasena ārammaṇe caraṇaṁ etassa atthīti vitakkacarito). 
2. Psychotherapeutic Value of Carita from Theravada Perspective
The attempts to understand human temperaments are done by many philosophers, psychologists, scientists, researchers and scholars from ancient to present time and they explore various concepts and methods. According to ancient Indian psychological thought, the concept of Sabhāva covers all aspects of personality. It is the speed of spirit which manifests itself as the essential quality in all becoming and the law of one’s nature. As per Upanishads, the model of “personality” consists of “five” sheath. The concept of Triguna explained in Bhagavat Gita and in Sankhya Darsana has been utilized to explain temperament traits in modern era as well.
Psychology is initially a study of mind. Studying the mind directly is not possible because it is an abstract noun. Therefore, the psychologists try to study by introspection. As beings are differ in personality, character, behaviors and ways of thinking, the method of introspection cannot bear the exact result. Professor J.B Watson studied behaviors of beings instead of mind. Actions of the beings are connected with mind. One cannot see the mind but can see the behaviors caused by the mind.
2.1 Categories of Carita
According to the Abhidhammatthavibhāvanī, six temperament traits stem from the basic temperament mental factor can vary in sixty-three kinds by mixing each other. Sixty-three kinds of temperaments are seven temperaments by way of rāgaditika, seven by way of saddāditika, twenty-one by way of ekamūla, twenty-one by way of dvimūla and seven by way of tikamūla.
Seven temperaments by way of rāgaditika are greed temperament, hate temperament, delusion temperament, greed-hate temperament, greeddelusion temperament, hate-delusion temperament and greed-hate-delusion temperament. Seven temperaments by way of saddāditika are faith temperament, intelligence temperament, speculation temperament, faith-intelligence temperament, faithspeculation temperament, intelligence-speculation temperament, and faith-intelligence-speculation temperament. Now, it becomes fourteen in total.
The seven temperaments by way of saddāditika are combined with each temperaments of ragaditika. In such way, temperament becomes forty-nine in total. Then, these forty-nine temperaments and above fourteen temperaments make 63 temperaments in total. Some scholars take sixty-forty kinds of temperaments by adding wrong view (diṭṭ hicarita). In such way, there are many temperament traits. It is known that a person can have more than one type of temperaments or a combination of various temperaments by above statement.
“When this is, that comes to be;
with the arising of this, that arises.”
According to the law of dependent origination (paṭiccasamuppāda), nothing is arisen being free from its cause. Hence, carita is also not the work of some divine power and not a creation. It has its causes.
In the Vimuttimagga, it mentioned the two causes, namely, previous habit (puddācinna) and elements and humors (dhātudosa) for greed, hate and delusion temperaments. In the Visuddhimagga, Venerable Buddhaghosa provided four causes of carita, namely, previous habit, element and humor, past existence, kamma and associated root (hetu). Amongst these four causes, Venerable Buddhaghosa agreed only with kamma and associated root as the causes of temperaments because the first three causes are indecisive for no reference in Pāḷ i scriptures. Herein, only the kamma and associated root will study detail as the causes of carita.
Carita is a predominant nature in one’s behavioral pattern rooted in the past existences, so one cannot get rid of his rooted habits immediately.  It distinguishes one person from another; people differ in outlook, attitude, habit and tendency. It is because of different actions (kamma) in the previous existences. Different actions are done by the power of various consciousness (citta) and mental factors (cetasika) which are concerned not only with good or bad thoughts in our present lives, but also with traits and predisposition accumulated in the past existences. Those who had accumulated good temperaments are blessed with good mentalities in this present lives.
If one’s deeds are mostly influenced by greed in the previous existence, then, kamma and vipāka cause him to have greed temperament. If anger is significant in his deeds in past life, he will have hate temperament in the present life. If ignorance is powerful in his actions of past life, he will reborn as a person with delusion temperament. The rest three temperaments are the same. If one’s deeds are mixed of root causes (hetu), he will be of mixed temperaments.
For instance, a person is performing an action. Amongst three unwholesome roots, his greed is strong whilst hatred and delusion are weak at the moment of accumulation kamma. Besides, amongst three wholesome roots, his non-anger and non-delusion are strong but non-greed is weak. In such condition, the root causes of greed, non-anger and non-delusion are strong. Thus, by rebirth consciousness of this kamma, a person can be reborn as a greedy person with graceful in bodily, verbally and mentally actions. He is not easy to get angry. He is intelligent and wise.
Hence, it is the kamma productive of rebirth-linking consciousness and accompanied by someone among the things beginning with greed that should be understood as the source of the temperaments. The carita of a person who has accumulated unwholesome deeds make unwholesome carita. Likewise, the carita of one who has accumulated wholesome deeds will be wholesome. Besides, one who has mixed kamma can have mixed temperament. In such way, kamma and its associated root which are done in the past influence the present temperament of beings.
2.3 Behaviors and Personal Activities governed by Carita
Each traits of temperament has their special styles of behaviors and personal activities performed in their daily life. Therefore, one can know the temperaments of others by observing the posture (iriyāpatha), function (kicca), eating (bhojana), seeing and kinds of states frequently occurring. Persons with rāgacarita and those with saddhācarita, persons with dosacarita and those with buddhicarita and persons with mohacarita and those with vitakkacarita are similar in nature and display common in behaviors and personal activities. The two poles of each generally represent the skillful and behavioral Tendencies unskillful aspects of each of these character types. For example, the greedy and faithful types, both manifest the same basic tendency, but the former in an unskillful way that leads to the perpetuation of and increase in suffering, whereas the latter manifests a skillful way that leads to the reduction of suffering.
Persons with rāgacarita and those with saddhācarita are similar in nature for the reason that faith is strong when profitable kamma occurs in greed temperament person, owing to its special qualities being near to those of greed. For, in an unprofitable way, greed is affectionate and not over-austere, and so, in a profitable way, is faith.
Both persons of rāgacarita and saddhācarita are usually gentle and polite in their manners. They walk carefully, put their foot down and lift slowly and evenly, and their steps are springy (ukkuṭika). The standing postures are attractive, respectful and graceful. They are generally clean, neat and tidy. They prefer sweet, aromatic and tender food. When eating, they make a round lump not too big and eats unhurriedly, savoring the various tastes. They act skillfully, gently, evenly and carefully. When they see even a slightly pleasing visible object, they look long as if surprised, seizes on trivial virtues, discounts genuine faults and when departing, they do so with regret as if unwilling to leave.
Even though, there are vast differences between these two carita. The one with rāgacarita has attachment to five sensual pleasures and he is wily, cunning, proud and greedy. On the contrary, the one with saddhācarita, is more truthful, honest and seeks special qualities of virtue and so on. He is generous in nature, and hence is liberal in charity. He is more or less pious, reveres the Three Jewels and enjoying listening to Dhamma discourses.
Persons with dosacarita and those with buddhicarita are similar in nature for the reason that understanding (paññā ) is strong when profitable kamma occurs in one with dosacarita, owing to its special qualities being near to those of hate. In an unprofitable way, hate is disaffected and does not hold to its object, and so, in a profitable way, is understanding.
Both persons of dosacarita and buddhicarita are crude and unbecoming in department. They are usually slipshod and untidy. They walk as if they were digging with the points of their feet, put their foot down and lift quickly and dragged along. They are rigid. Both types live lour, salty, bitter or pungent food. When eating, they make lumps that fill his mouth and eat hurriedly without savoring the taste. They cannot stand to unpleasant sights and sounds by reacting with abusive words, hatred, violence, and wrath. When they see even a slightly unpleasant visible objects, they avoid looking long as if they were tired, pick out trivial faults, discount genuine virtues and when departing they do so without regret as if anxious to leave.
Even though, there are vast differences between these two carita. Dosa seeks out only unreal faults, whilst paññā seeks out only real faults. Moreover, dosa occurs in the mode of condemning living beings. On the country, paññā occurs in the mode of condemning formations (saṅkhāra). The dosacarita person always shows grudge, revenge, envy, jealousy, slander, pride and stubbornness. The buddhicarita person is the opposite pole of the dosa dominant. He is free from grudge, jealousy and is amenable to good advice. He does everything with mindfulness and wisdom. He is quite aware of the coming existences and so is fond of doing good deeds for fulfillment of perfections (paramī).
Persons with mohacarita and those with vitakkacarita are similar in nature for the reason that obstructive applied thoughts arise often in one with mohacarita who is striving to arouse unarisen profitable states, owing to their special qualities being near to those of delusion. Just as delusion is restless owing to perplexity, so also applied thoughts are due to thinking over various aspects. Moreover, delusion vacillates owing to superficiality, so do applied thoughts are due to facile conjecturing.
Person of mohacarita is usually perplexed and confused. He cannot distinguish between right and wrong, good and bad. He is incapable of making his own judgments, so follows the opinion of others in denouncing or praising someone. Since he is devoid of sati and paññá, he wastes his time by being lazy, indolent and skeptic. He is the victim of sloth and torpor. Like mohacarita, the vitakkacarita person also lives in the way of uncertainty and skepticism. He is indolent and incapable of doing moral deeds. He flocks with those of the same feather. He indulges in useless babbles, speculations and imaginations, so he becomes a useless person, squandering his time in vain. They walk with a perplexed gait, put their foot down and lift hesitantly and steps are pressed down suddenly. When they see any sort of visible object, they imitate what others do, but actually, they feel equanimity in himself – equanimity of unknowning: so too with sounds and so on.
The Visuddhimagga talks about the unwholesome mental phenomena arise frequently in the person of greed (ragacarita). They are deceit (māya), hypocrisy (sāṭ heyya), conceit (māna), excessive wish (atricchatā), insatiable wish (mahicchatā), evil wish (pāpicchatā), discontentment (asantuṭṭ hī), persuasion or horn (saṅga), personal vanity (cāpalya), intoxicant or pride (mada), rivalry (sārambha) and extreme avariciousness (tintiṇa), discourteous living (asabhagavutti), tedium (arati), apathy (tandī), restlessness (vijambhitā), after meal drowsiness (bhattasammado), sluggishness (setasolīnattaṁ), guile (kuhana), insinuating talk (lapana), signifying (nemittikatā), defamation (nippesikatā) and seeking gain with gain (lābhena lābhaṁ nijigīsanatā).
The unwholesome phenomena frequently arising in dosacarita person are anger (kodha), grudge (upanāha), ingratitude (makkha), disparaging (paḷā sa), jealousy (issā), meanness (macchariya), contumacy (dovacassata), having evil friends (pāpamittatā) and so on.
As for mohacarita person, sloth (thina), torpor (middha), restlessness (uddhacca), remorse (kukkucca), doubt (vicikicca), dogma (adanaggahaha), difficulty in renouncing (duppatinissaggita), unmindfulness (mutthasacca), absence of awareness (asampajanna),etc. These mental phenomena are mostly because of associated mental states.
Free generosity (muttacāgatā), desire to see a Noble person (ariyānandassana-kāmatā), desire to hear the doctrine of a Noble person (saddhammaṃsotukāmatā), great gladness (pāmojjabahulatā), ingenuousness (asaṭṭ hatā), honesty (amāyāvitā), faith in things worthy of faith (pasādaniyesuṭhānesu pasādo) are frequently arising whole mental phenomena in Saddhacarita person.
Buddhicarita person is easy to be admonished (savacassatā), possession of good friends (kalyāṇ amittatā), has moderation in diet (bhojane mattaññ utā), has mindfulness and full awareness (satisaṁpajañnatā), devotes to wakefulness or strong effort (jāgariyānuyogo), has sense of urgency at eight ̃grounds for the sense of urgency (saṃvejaniyesu ṭhānesu saṁvego) and practices wisely by means of sense of urgency (saṃviggassaca yoniso padhānaṁ).
Talkativeness (bhassabahulata), sociability (ganaramata), boredom with devotion to the profitable (kusalānuyoge arati), failure to finish understakings (anavathitakiccata), smoking by night (rattindumayana) and flaming by day (divapajjalana), restless mind (hurahuramdhavana) are frequently mental states of vittakacarita person.
3. Psychopathological Study to problematic Carita
In this chapter, rāgacarita, dosacarita, mohacarita and vitakkacarita will be discussed to delineate the psychopathology to their problematic and predominant nature. To eliminate the problematic nature, according to the Visuddhimagga, the opposite meditation subject should be developed. Hence, for changing into good temperaments, one should develop the opposite behaviors, personal activities and life style.
3.1 Remedy for Ragacarita Person
Rāgacarita person is never stopping his attachment to sensual pleasure, likeable and loveable objects as it is a style of seeking pleasant, attractive, beautiful, and enjoyable things and experiences. He is not capable to content with what he has. He wants more and more even he has enough. Thus, the Buddha gave ten kinds of foulness (asubha bhāvana) which is contemplation on the corpse and mindfulness occupied with the body (kāyagatāsati) as suitable meditation subjects for greedy temperament. Ten kinds of foulness are arranged especially for the different types of attachment to objects such as attachment to appearance, color, scents, compactness, accumulation of flesh, grace of the limbs, fine body as a whole, elegance produced by ornaments, ownership of the body and fine teeth. Kāyagatāsati is contemplation on thirty-two parts of the body. Both methods are vividly aimed to detach the clinging to sensual objects and pleasure. Thus, it is suggested that providing luxurious housing, clothing, and food is not beneficial for one who is predominantly greedy, and moreover that it is helpful to have personal interactions that discourage pride and vanity in the case of meditation. Yet, in the case of social communication and business, it is suggested that providing sensual things is beneficial and useful for one who is predominantly greedy. So, it can bring the good relationship with him.
When raga or lobha arises in mind, it does not let wholesome deeds arise and it is also called fetter because it blinds beings to the round of rebirth (saṃsāra). Thus, one should practice to change from such temperament. The opposite of lobha is alobha which does not attach to anything. To cultivate alobha hetu, one should do charity (dāna).
3.2 Remedy for Dosacarita Person
Wherever he sees the unpleasant, unbeautiful and undesirable objects, he gets angry easily as he is dosacarita person. It is critical, quickly displeased, quarrelsome and disparaging of many things. Its quality of aversion can give rise to states of anger, vindictiveness, haughtiness, hatred, cruelty, aggression and struggle to control. . .” Thus, the four divine abiding (brahmacariya) and four color of kasiṇa are instructed as meditation subjects in the Visuddhimagga.
One cannot control his mind when he gets angry. As a result, he commits any kinds of crimes which affect both himself and others. Not happen such events, he should know the faults of hatred such as it make mental and physical suffering, it blinds or impedes or tortures to a person. Besides, he must have patient (khantī) to abandon hatred. The Buddha said patience and forbearance are the highest austerity.
In social life, one should behave with loving-kindness (mettā) to dosacarita person as mettā is opposite to dosa. If one react an angry person with anger, it is similar taking a hot charcoal and throw to that person. But before throwing, one’s hand will in heat. Thus, instead of throwing with hot charcoal, using water which is mettā is effective way. The story of Queen Sāmavati from Dhammapada Aṭṭ hakathā is clear evident showing how to behave with hatred person.
3.3 Remedy for Mohacarita and Vitakkacarita Person
It is vividly known that mindfulness of breathing (ānāpānasati) is suitable for mohacarita and vitakkacarita person as person mentioned in the Visuddhimagga. As these temperaments are nature of careless in everything and their minds are always wandering here and there likewise a monkey. In case of vipassanā ñā na, the doctrine of dependent origination (paṭiccasamuppāda) is suitable for these temperaments as it is object for higher knowledge. Through learning and understanding it, knowledge can grow for mohacarita and vitakkacarita person.
These kinds of temperament person should not be away from elders or parents or teachers who can guide them well because they cannot decide and handle by themselves. Therefore, having such traits of temperament as employees or students or children, employers, teachers and parents, it needs to pay attention and to guide closely.
We face diversity of beings, in today society, with unequal personality and character in our communication life such as in a family, in the work, in a school, etc. One has no chance to deny the temperament attached from past existences but can improve and turn into the good one. Thus, this work aims to light a road to good relationship starting from family up to the whole human society by understanding the nature of temperaments.
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- Srivastava, K. Concept of Personality: Indian Perspective. Ind Psychiatry. 2012.
- Digman, JM. Personality Structure: Emergence of the Five- Factor Model, Annual Review of Psychology.1990
- Digman JM. Personality Structure: Emergence of the Five-Factor Model. Annual Review of Psychology.1990; 41(1):417–40.
- Vinaya Piṭaka, Suttanta Piṭaka and Abhidhamma Piṭaka.
- going (gati), eating (bhakkhaṇa) and confidence (asaṃsaya)
- Caritanti cariyā (Cariyapitaka Atthakatha, Vol. I. Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1961. p-17).
- Caritanti ciṇṇ aṃ dānādipaṭipattiṁ (Ibid, p-20).
- Caritanti pubbe kataṃ kusalākusalaṁ kammaṁ (Paṭisaṁbhidhāmagga Aṭṭ hakathā II, Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 2004. p- 7).
- Caritanti kāyādīhi abhisaṅkhataṁ kusalākusalaṁ. (Sammohavinodanī Aṭṭ hakathā, Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1968. p-212).
- Ledi Sayadaw. Paramattha Dipani. p-416.
- Bhikkhu Ñanamoli. The Path of Purification. The Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation. Taipei. 1997. p- 71.
- to dye
- Ven. Kaccāyana. Kaccāyanabyakaraṇa Aṭṭ hakathā, Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1997.p-590.
- Parajika Pali, Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1997. p- 67.
- Puggalapannatti Pali, Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1997. p-260.
- angering (dosane), disliking (appiya)
- Pali English Dictionary. p- 332.
- Sanskrit English Dictionary. p- 506.
- Mahāniddesa Aṭṭ hakathā. Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1993. p-338.
- mental confusion (vecitta)
- Sagāthāvagga Pāḷ i, Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1997. p-365.
- Vibhanga Pali, Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1996. p-405-6.
- Mahāniddesa Aṭṭ hakathā. Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1993. p-338.
- well (sammā)
- to establish, to place, to put.
- Ibid. p- 338.
- to know
- to know
- Mahāniddesa Aṭṭ hakathā. Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1993. p- 338.
- to think.
- Dhammasaṅganī Pāḷ i. Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1972. p-18.
- sensual thought (kāmavitakka), thought of ill-will (byāpādavitakka), thought of torture (vihiṁsavitakka).
- thought of liberation (nekkhammavitakka), thought of non-illwill (abyāpādavitakka), thought of non-torture (avihiṁsavitakka).
- Ibid. p-338.
- ‘Annamaya’ (food sheath), ‘Pranamaya’ (vital air sheath), ‘Manomaya’ (mental sheath), ‘Vijnanamaya’ (intellectual sheath), and ‘Anandamaya’ (bliss sheath). ‘Annamaya’; a segment of human system is nourished by ‘anna’, that is, food. ‘Pranamaya’ is that segment which is nourished by ‘prana’, that is, ‘bioenergy’. ‘Manomaya’ is the segment nourished by ‘education’. ‘Vijnanamaya’ is nourished by ‘ego’ and ‘Anandamaya’ is the segment nourished by ‘emotions’.
- sattva (stability), rajas (activation), tamas (inertia).
- Srivastava K. Concept of personality: Indian perspective. Ind Psychiatry J 2012;21:89-93. p-90.
- Abhidhammatthavibhavini. p- 265.
- Mahasi Sayadaw. Visuddhimagga, Myanmar Translation. Vol. I. 5th edition. Swel Taw Publication. Yangon. 2008. p- 320.
- Ibid. p- 325.
- There are six roots (hetu) mentioned in the Abhidhammatthasaṅghaha, namely, greed (lobha), hatred (dosa), delusion (moha), alobha (non-greed), adosa (non-hatred) and amoha (non-delusion).
- Ashin Janakabhivamsa. Abhidhamma in Daily Life. New Burma Publication. 2006. p-143.
- Mahasi Sayadaw. Visuddhimagga, Myanmar Translation. Vol. I. 5th edition. Swel Taw Publication. Yangon. 2008. p- 325.
- Ibid. p- 328.
- Buddhaghosa. The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga. Onalaska, WA: Pariyatti Publishing. p- 430
- Ibid. p-108.
- Visudhimagga Atthakatha. Vol. I. Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1993.p- 101-3.
- Visudhimagga Tika. p-128. Vibhanga Pali . Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1996.p- 364-6.
- Mahasi Sayadaw. Visuddhimagga, Myanmar Translation. Vol. I. 5th edition. Swel Taw Publication. Yangon. 2008. p- 106-8.
- Ibid. p- 101-3.
- Ledi Sayadaw. Paramatthadīpanī. p-184.
- Visudhimagga Aṭṭ hakathā. Vol. I. p- 103.
- Ibid. p-162.
- contemplation on the corpse which is the bloated, the livid, the festering, the cut-up, the gnawed, the scattered, the hacked and scattered, the bleeding, the worm-infested, the skeleton.
- Buddhaghosa. The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga. Onalaska, WA: Pariyatti Publishing. p-430.
- Parajika Pali. Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1997. p- 96.
- Kornfield J. The wise heart: A guide to the universal teachings of Buddhist psychology. New York: Bantam Books; 2008.
- loving-kindness, compassion, appreciative joy, equanimity.
- blue, yellow, red and white.
- Dhammapada verse no. 184.
- Dhammapada Aṭṭ hakathā. Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1993. p-141-2.
- Mahāvagga Tikā. Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon. 1993. p-237.